ASTM D501 - 03(2016)

    Standard Test Methods of Sampling and Chemical Analysis of Alkaline Detergents

    Active Standard ASTM D501 | Developed by Subcommittee: D12.12

    Book of Standards Volume: 15.04

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    These test methods cover procedures for the sampling and chemical analysis of inorganic alkaline detergents. These detergents include caustic soda, soda ash, modified soda (sequicarbonate type), sodium bicarbonate, sodium metasilicate, trisodium phosphate, tetrasodium pyrophosphate, borax, and sodium triphosphate. Different tests shall be conducted in order to determine the following properties of the detergents: total alkalinity, matter insoluble in water content, apparent density, ignition loss, pH level, turbidity, temperature rise, and particle size. Chemical analysis of the samples shall be performed by using either reverse-flow ion-exchange chromatography or paper chromatography.

    This abstract is a brief summary of the referenced standard. It is informational only and not an official part of the standard; the full text of the standard itself must be referred to for its use and application. ASTM does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents of this abstract are accurate, complete or up to date.

    1. Scope

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the sampling and chemical analysis of inorganic alkaline detergents.

    1.2 The procedures appear in the following order:



    Caustic Soda:




     Total Alkalinity as Sodium Oxide (Na2O)

    6 – 8

     Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH)

    9 – 11

     Carbonate as Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3)


     Carbon Dioxide (CO2) by the Evolution Method

    13 – 16

    Soda Ash:




     Matter Volatile at 150 to 155°C

    18 and 19

     Total Alkalinity as Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3 )

    20 – 22

     Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3)

    23 – 25

     Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3) by Potentiometric Titration

    26 – 28

     Matter Insoluble in Water

    29 and 30

     Apparent Density

    31 and 32

    Modified Soda (Sequicarbonate Type):




     Total Alkalinity as Sodium Oxide (Na2O)

    34 – 36

     Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3)

    37 – 39

     Matter Insoluble in Water


    Sodium Bicarbonate:




     Sodium Bicarbonate, Sodium Carbonate, and Free Moisture

    42 – 45

     Matter Insoluble in Water


    Sodium Metasilicate, Sodium Sesquisilicate and Sodium Orthosil-   icate:




     Total Alkalinity as Sodium Oxide (Na2O)

    48 – 50

     Total Silica as SiO2

    51 – 53

     Sodium Metasilicate (Na2SiO3·5H2O)


     Sodium Sesquisilicate (3Na2O·2SiO2·11H2O)


     Matter Insoluble in Water

    56 and 57

     Loss on Ignition of Sodium Sesquisilicate (3Na2O·2SiO2 ·11H2O)

    58 and 59

     Sodium Orthosilicate (Na4SiO4)


    Trisodium Phosphate:




     Trisodium Phosphate (Na3PO4) Content and Phosphorus   Pentoxide (P2O5)

    62 – 64

     Trisodium Phosphate Calculated as Na3PO4·12H2O, Na3PO4·   H2O, Na3PO4, and as P2O5

    65 – 68

     Total Alkalinity as Sodium Oxide (Na2O)

    69 – 71

     Matter Insoluble in Water

    72 and 73

    Tetrasodium Pyrophosphate:




     Tetrasodium Pyrophosphate

    75 – 79

     Matter Insoluble in Water

    80 and 81

     Loss on Ignition

    82 and 83





     Total Borate and Excess Alkalinity or Acidity

    85 – 87

     Matter Insoluble in Water

    88 and 89

    Sodium Triphosphate:




     Tritratable Na2O

    91 – 94

     Total P2O5:


      Preferred Method

    95 – 97

      Alternative Method

    98 – 101

      pH Titration

    102 – 107

     Quantitative Separation and Measurement of Various Phosphates:


      Reverse-Flow Ion-Exchange Chromatography (Preferred    Method)

    108 – 119

      Paper Chromatographic Method

    120 – 127

     pH of 1 percent Solution




     Temperature Rise

    130 – 134


    135 – 137

     Ignition Loss

    140 and 141

     Matter Insoluble in Water

    142 – 144

     Particle Size



    146 – 151

    1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

    1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Material Safety Data Sheets are available for reagents and materials. Review them for hazards prior to usage.

    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D459 Terminology Relating to Soaps and Other Detergents

    D1193 Specification for Reagent Water

    E1 Specification for ASTM Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers

    E70 Test Method for pH of Aqueous Solutions With the Glass Electrode

    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 71.100.40 (Surface active agents)

    Referencing This Standard
    Link Here
    Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)

    DOI: 10.1520/D0501-03R16

    ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.

    Citation Format

    ASTM D501-03(2016), Standard Test Methods of Sampling and Chemical Analysis of Alkaline Detergents, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2016,

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