ASTM D4917-97(2007)e1

    Standard Test Method for Coefficient of Static and Kinetic Friction of Uncoated Writing and Printing Paper by Use of the Horizontal Plane Method (Withdrawn 2010)

    Withdrawn Standard: ASTM D4917-97(2007)e1 | Developed by Subcommittee: D06.92

    WITHDRAWN, NO REPLACEMENT


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    Withdrawn Rationale:

    This test method describes a horizontal plane procedure for the determination of the coefficient of static and kinetic friction of paper measured when sliding against itself.

    Formerly under the jurisdiction of Committee D06 on Paper and Paper Products, this test method was withdrawn in August 2010 because an equivalent TAPPI publication exists.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method describes a horizontal plane procedure for the determination of the coefficient of static and kinetic friction of paper measured when sliding against itself.

    1.2 Although this test method is basic in concept, the precision statement has been developed on uncoated writing and printing papers. While the use of this test method is recommended for those grades only, it may be used with other types of papers giving specific attention to special paper characteristics and with the understanding that the precision and bias may not be the same.

    1.3 The horizontal instrument requires some means of movement of the specimen in relation to the surface upon which it rests. The coefficient of friction (COF) is measured directly from the resistance to tangential motion and the applied weight pressing two pieces of paper together.

    1.4 Static COF relates to the force required to initiate movement between two surfaces while kinetic COF relates to the force required to cause continuation of the movement at uniform speed.

    1.5 An inclined plane method is described in Test Method D 4918, which gives similar results for static COF but Test Method D 4918 cannot be used for the determination of kinetic COF. The choice of approach depends on the equipment available and the means of measurement.

    1.6 The determination of this characteristic for corrugated and solid fiberboard is described in Test Methods D 4521 and D 3247. These test methods differ in that in Test Methods D 4521 and D 3247, the two specimens are allowed to slip upon one another three times before the force measurement is determined, while in this test method the determination is made on the first slip.

    1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.



    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D528 Test Method for Machine Direction of Paper and Paperboard

    D585 Practice for Sampling and Accepting a Single Lot of Paper, Paperboard, Fiberboard, and Related Product

    D685 Practice for Conditioning Paper and Paper Products for Testing

    D725 Method for Identification of Wire Side of Paper

    D828 Test Method for Tensile Properties of Paper and Paperboard Using Constant-Rate-of-Elongation Apparatus

    D1968 Terminology Relating to Paper and Paper Products

    D3247 Method of Test for Coefficient of Static Friction of Corrugated and Solid Fiberboard (Horizontal Plane Method)

    D3460 Specification for White Watermarked and Unwatermarked Bond, Reprographic, and Laser Printer Cut-Sized Office Papers

    D4521 Test Method for Coefficient of Static Friction of Corrugated and Solid Fiberboard

    D4918 Test Method for Coefficient of Static Friction of Uncoated Writing and Printing Paper by Use of the Inclined Plane Method

    E122 Practice for Calculating Sample Size to Estimate, With Specified Precision, the Average for a Characteristic of a Lot or Process


    DOI: 10.1520/D4917-97R07E01

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