ASTM D4891 - 13

    Standard Test Method for Heating Value of Gases in Natural Gas and Flare Gases Range by Stoichiometric Combustion

    Active Standard ASTM D4891 | Developed by Subcommittee: D03.03

    Book of Standards Volume: 05.06


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    ASTM D4891

    Significance and Use

    5.1 This test method provides an accurate and reliable procedure to measure the total heating value of a fuel gas, on a continuous basis, which is used for regulatory compliance, custody transfer, and process control.

    5.2 Some instruments which conform to the requirements set forth in this test method can have response times on the order of 1 min or less and can be used for on-line measurement and control.

    5.3 The method is sensitive to the presence of oxygen and nonparaffin fuels. For components not listed and composition ranges that fall outside those in Table 1 and Table 2, modifications in the method and changes to the calibration gas or gasses being used may be required to obtain correct results.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the heating value of natural gases and similar gaseous mixtures within the range of composition shown in Table 1, and Table 2 that covers flare components but is not intended to limit the components to be measured in flare gases.

    TABLE 1 Natural Gas Components and Range of Composition Covered

    Compound

    Concentration Range, mole, %

    Helium

    0.01 to 5 

    Nitrogen

    0.01 to 20

    Carbon dioxide

    0.01 to 10

    Methane

    50 to 100 

    Ethane

    0.01 to 20

    Propane

    0.01 to 20

    n-butane

    0.01 to 10

    isobutane

    0.01 to 10

    n-pentane

    0.01 to 2 

    Isopentane

    0.01 to 2 

    Hexanes and heavier

    0.01 to 2 


    TABLE 2 Natural Gas Components and Range of Composition CoveredA

    Compound

    CAS Number

    Volatile Analytes

    Acetone

    67-64-1

    Acetonitrile

    75-05-8

    Acrolein

    107-05-8

    Acrylonitrile

    107-13-1

    Benzene

    71-43-2 2

    1,3-Butadiene

    106-99-0

    Carbon disulfide

    75-15-0

    Chlorobenzene

    108-90-7

    Cumene (isopropylbenzene)

    98-82-8

    1,2-Dibromoethane

    106-93-4

    Ethylbenzene

    100-41-4 2,2,4

    Hexane

    110-54-3

    Methanol

    67-56-1

    Methyl isobutyl ketone

    108-10-1

    Methyl t-butyl ether

    1634-04-4

    Methylene chloride

    75-09-2

    Nitrobenzene

    98-95-3

    Nitropropane

    79-46-9

    Pentane2

    109-66-0

    Styrene

    100-42-5

    Tetrachloroethene

    127-18-4

    Toluene

    108-88-3

    Trichloroethene

    79-01-6

    Trimethylpentane

    2 540-84-1

    Xylenes (mixed isomers)

    1330-20-7

    Trimethylpentane

    2 540-84-1

    Xylenes (mixed isomers)

    1330-20-7

     

     

    Semi-volatile Analytes

    Acenaphthene

    83-32-9

    Acenaphthylene

    208-96-8

    Aniline

    62-53-3

    Anthracene

    120-12-7

    Benzidine1

    92-87-5

    Benz[a]anthracene

    56-55-3

    Benzo[b]fluoranthene

    205-99-2

    Benzo[k]fluoranthene

    207-08-9

    Benzo[g,h,i]perylene

    191-24-2

    Benzo[a]pyrene

    50-32-8

    Benzo[e]pyrene2

    192-97-2

    Biphenyl2,

    92-52-4

    Cresol (mixed isomers)

    1319-77-3

    Chrysene

    218-01-9

    Dibenz[a,h]anthracene

    53-70-3

    Dibenzofuran

    132-64-9

    Dibenzo(a,e)pyrene

    192-65-4

    3,3’- Dimethoxybenzidine

    119-90-4

    Dimethylaminobenzene

    60-11-7

    7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene

    57-97-6

    3,3’- Dimethylbenzidine

    119-93-7

    á,á- Dimethylphenethylamine

    122-09-8

    2,4-Dimethylphenol

    105-67-9

    Fluoranthene

    206-44-0

    Fluorene

    86-73-7

    Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene

    193-39-5

    Isophorone

    78-59-1

    3-Methylcholanthrene

    56-49-5

    2-Methylnaphthalene

    91-57-6

    Naphthalene

    91-20-3

    Perylene2

    198-55-0

    Phenanthrene

    85-01-8

    Phenol

    108-95-2

    1,4-Phenylenediamine

    106-50-3

    Pyrene

    129-00-0

    o-Toluidine

    95-53-4

     

     

    Aldehydes

    Methanol

    67-56-1

    Formaldehyde

    50-00-0

    Acetaldehyde

    75-07-0

    Propanal

    123-38-6

     

     

    C1 to C5 Hydrocarbons

    Description

    Compound

    CAS Number

    C1 Alkanes

    Methane

    74-82-8

    C2 Alkanes

    Ethane

    74-84-0

    C3 Alkanes

    Propane

    74-98-6

    C4 Alkanes

    n-Butane

    106-97-8

    Isobutane

    75-28-5

    C5 Alkanes

    n-Pentane

    109-66-0

    2-Methylbutane

    78-78-4

    Cyclopentane

    287-92-3

    C2 Olefins

    Ethylene

    74-85-1

    C2 Alkanes

    Acetylene

    74-86-2

    C3 Olefins

    Propylene

    115-07-1

    C4 Olefins

    1-Butene

    106-98-9

     

    2-Butene

    107-01-7

     

    Isobutene

    115-11-7

    C5 Olefins

    1-Pentene

    109-67-1

     

    Cis-2-pentene

    627-20-3

     

    Trans-2-pentene

    646-04-8

     

    2-Methyl-1-butene

    563-46-2

     

    3-Methyl-1-butene

    563-45-1

     

    2-Methyl-2-butene

    513-35-9

     

    Cylcopentene


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D1826 Test Method for Calorific (Heating) Value of Gases in Natural Gas Range by Continuous Recording Calorimeter

    E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method

    EPA Standard

    EPA-600/2-85-106 Evaluation of the Efficiency of Industrial Flares: Flare Head Design and Gas Composition


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 75.060 (Natural gas); 75.160.30 (Gaseous fuels)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 15111500(Gaseous fuels)


    DOI: 10.1520/D4891-13

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