Active Standard ASTM D4874 | Developed by Subcommittee: D34.01.04
Book of Standards Volume: 11.04
Historical (view previous versions of standard)
Significance and Use
This test method is intended to provide an aqueous leaching of a material in a dynamic partitioning manner.
Specific operating conditions for the column can be selected to satisfy the objectives of individual studies. An understanding of the fundamental principles governing column leaching is necessary in the selection of appropriate conditions. References (1-3)4 provide useful information on these principles.
The column apparatus is constructed of materials that permit the generation of a leachate which is suitable for low concentration organic analysis for semivolatile and nonvolatile compounds as well as inorganic species.
FIG. 1 Column Apparatus
1.1 This test method is a standard laboratory procedure for generating aqueous leachate from materials using a column apparatus. It provides a leachate suitable for organic analysis of semivolatile and nonvolatile compounds as well as inorganic analyses.
1.2 The column apparatus is designed and constructed of materials chosen to enhance the leaching of low concentrations of semivolatile and nonvolatile organic constituents as well as to maximize the leaching of metallic species from the solid. Analysis of column effluent provides information on the leaching characteristics of material under the conditions used in the test.
1.3 This test method provides for the passage of an aqueous fluid through materials of known mass in a saturated up-flow mode.
1.4 It is intended that the sample used in the procedure be physically, chemically, and biologically representative of the material.
1.5 This test method does not produce results that can be used as the sole basis for (1) engineering design of a disposal site, or (2) the characterization of wastes based on their leaching characteristics.
1.6 This test method has the following limitations
1.6.1 Maximum particle size is 10 mm (0.4 in.). Particle size reduction is not recommended. Large-diameter material (cinders, rocks, and so forth) should be removed prior to packing the column to ensure adequate compaction.
1.6.2 Test materials containing densely immiscible organic material may result in phase separation and lead to column plugging.
1.6.3 This test method does not differentiate between dissolved constituents and sub-70-m particulates that pass through the pores of the end plates.
1.6.4 This test method is not applicable to the leachability characterization of materials with regard to volatile compounds.
1.6.5 This test method is not applicable to the characterization of materials that dissolve in water to a degree that significantly impacts the void volume in the column or the determination of the specific gravity of the material.
1.7 Application of this test method to materials with initial low permeability, or to those that lose permeability over the course of the test, may result in long testing periods.
1.8 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are in approximate inch-pound equivalents.
1.9 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C819 Test Method for Specific Surface Area of Carbon or Graphite
D422 Test Method for Particle-Size Analysis of Soils
D698 Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12 400 ft-lbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3))
D854 Test Methods for Specific Gravity of Soil Solids by Water Pycnometer
D1125 Test Methods for Electrical Conductivity and Resistivity of Water
D1129 Terminology Relating to Water
D1293 Test Methods for pH of Water
D1498 Test Method for Oxidation-Reduction Potential of Water
D1888 Methods Of Test for Particulate and Dissolved Matter in Water
D2216 Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
D2434 Test Method for Permeability of Granular Soils (Constant Head)
D3370 Practices for Sampling Water from Closed Conduits
D3694 Practices for Preparation of Sample Containers and for Preservation of Organic Constituents
D4253 Test Methods for Maximum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils Using a Vibratory Table
E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
ICS Number Code 13.030.40 (Installations and equipment for waste disposal and treatment)