Active Standard ASTM D4868 | Developed by Subcommittee: D02.05
Book of Standards Volume: 05.02
Historical (view previous versions of standard)
Significance and Use
This test method is intended for use in cases where an experimental determination of heat of combustion is not available and cannot be made conveniently, and where an estimate is considered satisfactory. It is not intended as a substitute for experimental measurement of heat of combustion.
1.1 This test method covers the estimation of the gross and net heat of combustion in SI units, megajoules per kilogram, of petroleum fuels from the fuel density, sulfur, water, and ash content.
Note 1—The equation for estimation of net and gross heat of combustion used in this method were originally published by the NIST Publication No. 97.
1.2 This test method is especially useful for estimating, using a minimum number of tests, the heat of combustion of burner and diesel fuels for which it is not usually critical to obtain very precise heat determinations.
Note 2—More accurate estimation methods are available for aviation fuels (Test Methods D1405, D4529,and D3338). However, those estimation methods require additional tests to those required in this test method.
1.3 This test method is purely empirical (Note 1). It is applicable only to liquid hydrocarbon fuels derived by normal refining processes from conventional crude oil that conform to the requirements of specifications for petroleum fuels as described in Note 3. This test method is valid for those fuels in the density range from 750 to 1000 kg/m3 and those that do not contain an unusually high aromatic content. High aromatic content fuels will not normally meet fuel specification criteria.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D95 Test Method for Water in Petroleum Products and Bituminous Materials by Distillation
D129 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (General High Pressure Decomposition Device Method)
D240 Test Method for Heat of Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels by Bomb Calorimeter
D396 Specification for Fuel Oils
D482 Test Method for Ash from Petroleum Products
D975 Specification for Diesel Fuel Oils
D1266 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (Lamp Method)
D1298 Test Method for Density, Relative Density (Specific Gravity), or API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Liquid Petroleum Products by Hydrometer Method
D1405 Test Method for Estimation of Net Heat of Combustion of Aviation Fuels
D1480 Test Method for Density and Relative Density (Specific Gravity) of Viscous Materials by Bingham Pycnometer
D1481 Test Method for Density and Relative Density (Specific Gravity) of Viscous Materials by Lipkin Bicapillary Pycnometer
D1552 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (High-Temperature Method)
D1655 Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels
D1744 Test Method for Determination of Water in Liquid Petroleum Products by Karl Fischer Reagent
D1796 Test Method for Water and Sediment in Fuel Oils by the Centrifuge Method (Laboratory Procedure)
D2622 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
D2880 Specification for Gas Turbine Fuel Oils
D3338 Test Method for Estimation of Net Heat of Combustion of Aviation Fuels
D3699 Specification for Kerosine
D4052 Test Method for Density, Relative Density, and API Gravity of Liquids by Digital Density Meter
D4294 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum and Petroleum Products by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
D4529 Test Method for Estimation of Net Heat of Combustion of Aviation Fuels
D4809 Test Method for Heat of Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels by Bomb Calorimeter (Precision Method)
D5453 Test Method for Determination of Total Sulfur in Light Hydrocarbons, Spark Ignition Engine Fuel, Diesel Engine Fuel, and Engine Oil by Ultraviolet Fluorescence
ICS Number Code 75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)