ASTM D4809 - 13

    Standard Test Method for Heat of Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels by Bomb Calorimeter (Precision Method)

    Active Standard ASTM D4809 | Developed by Subcommittee: D02.05

    Book of Standards Volume: 05.02


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    ASTM D4809

    Significance and Use

    5.1 The heat of combustion is a measure of the energy available from a fuel. A knowledge of this value is essential when considering the thermal efficiency of equipment for producing either power or heat.

    5.2 The mass heat of combustion, that is, the heat of combustion per unit mass of fuel, is measured by this procedure. Its magnitude is particularly important to weight-limited vehicles such as airplanes, surface effect vehicles, and hydrofoils as the distance such craft can travel on a given weight of fuel is a direct function of the fuel's mass heat of combustion and its density.

    5.3 The volumetric heat of combustion, that is, the heat of combustion per unit volume of fuel, can be calculated by multiplying the mass heat of combustion by the density of the fuel (mass per unit volume). The volumetric heat of combustion, rather than the mass heat of combustion, is important to volume-limited craft such as automobiles and ships, as it is directly related to the distance traveled between refuelings.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the heat of combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. It is designed specifically for use with aviation turbine fuels when the permissible difference between duplicate determinations is of the order of 0.2 %. It can be used for a wide range of volatile and nonvolatile materials where slightly greater differences in precision can be tolerated.

    1.2 In order to attain this precision, strict adherence to all details of the procedure is essential since the error contributed by each individual measurement that affects the precision shall be kept below 0.04 %, insofar as possible.

    1.3 Under normal conditions, the test method is directly applicable to such fuels as gasolines, kerosines, Nos. 1 and 2 fuel oil, Nos. 1-D and 2-D diesel fuel and Nos. 0-GT, 1-GT, and 2-GT gas turbine fuels.

    1.4  Through the improvement of the calorimeter controls and temperature measurements, the precision is improved over that of Test Method D240.

    1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

    1.6 This standard does not purport to address the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific warning statements, see Section 7, 10.6, A1.7.1 and Annex A3.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D129 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (General High Pressure Decomposition Device Method)

    D240 Test Method for Heat of Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels by Bomb Calorimeter

    D1018 Test Method for Hydrogen In Petroleum Fractions

    D1193 Specification for Reagent Water

    D1266 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (Lamp Method)

    D2622 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

    D3120 Test Method for Trace Quantities of Sulfur in Light Liquid Petroleum Hydrocarbons by Oxidative Microcoulometry

    D3701 Test Method for Hydrogen Content of Aviation Turbine Fuels by Low Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometry

    D4294 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum and Petroleum Products by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

    D5453 Test Method for Determination of Total Sulfur in Light Hydrocarbons, Spark Ignition Engine Fuel, Diesel Engine Fuel, and Engine Oil by Ultraviolet Fluorescence

    D7171 Test Method for Hydrogen Content of Middle Distillate Petroleum Products by Low-Resolution Pulsed Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    E1 Specification for ASTM Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers

    E144 Practice for Safe Use of Oxygen Combustion Bombs

    E200 Practice for Preparation, Standardization, and Storage of Standard and Reagent Solutions for Chemical Analysis


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 30121602(Pitch)


    DOI: 10.1520/D4809-13

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