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Significance and Use
5.1 The heat of combustion is a measure of the energy available from a fuel. A knowledge of this value is essential when considering the thermal efficiency of equipment for producing either power or heat.
5.2 The mass heat of combustion, that is, the heat of combustion per unit mass of fuel, is measured by this procedure. Its magnitude is particularly important to weight-limited vehicles such as airplanes, surface effect vehicles, and hydrofoils as the distance such craft can travel on a given weight of fuel is a direct function of the fuel's mass heat of combustion and its density.
5.3 The volumetric heat of combustion, that is, the heat of combustion per unit volume of fuel, can be calculated by multiplying the mass heat of combustion by the density of the fuel (mass per unit volume). The volumetric heat of combustion, rather than the mass heat of combustion, is important to volume-limited craft such as automobiles and ships, as it is directly related to the distance traveled between refuelings.
1.1 This test method covers the determination of the heat of combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. It is designed specifically for use with aviation turbine fuels when the permissible difference between duplicate determinations is of the order of 0.2 %. It can be used for a wide range of volatile and nonvolatile materials where slightly greater differences in precision can be tolerated.
1.2 In order to attain this precision, strict adherence to all details of the procedure is essential since the error contributed by each individual measurement that affects the precision shall be kept below 0.04 %, insofar as possible.
1.3 Under normal conditions, the test method is directly applicable to such fuels as gasolines, kerosines, Nos. 1 and 2 fuel oil, Nos. 1-D and 2-D diesel fuel and Nos. 0-GT, 1-GT, and 2-GT gas turbine fuels.
1.4 Through the improvement of the calorimeter controls and temperature measurements, the precision is improved over that of Test Method D240.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific warning statements, see Section 7, 10.6, A1.7.1 and Annex A3.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D129 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (General High Pressure Decomposition Device Method)
D240 Test Method for Heat of Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels by Bomb Calorimeter
D1018 Test Method for Hydrogen In Petroleum Fractions
D1193 Specification for Reagent Water
D1266 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (Lamp Method)
D2622 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
D3120 Test Method for Trace Quantities of Sulfur in Light Liquid Petroleum Hydrocarbons by Oxidative Microcoulometry
D3701 Test Method for Hydrogen Content of Aviation Turbine Fuels by Low Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometry
D4294 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum and Petroleum Products by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
D5453 Test Method for Determination of Total Sulfur in Light Hydrocarbons, Spark Ignition Engine Fuel, Diesel Engine Fuel, and Engine Oil by Ultraviolet Fluorescence
D7171 Test Method for Hydrogen Content of Middle Distillate Petroleum Products by Low-Resolution Pulsed Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
E1 Specification for ASTM Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers
E144 Practice for Safe Use of Oxygen Combustion Bombs
E200 Practice for Preparation, Standardization, and Storage of Standard and Reagent Solutions for Chemical Analysis
ICS Number Code 75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)
UNSPSC Code 30121602(Pitch)
ASTM D4809-13, Standard Test Method for Heat of Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels by Bomb Calorimeter (Precision Method), ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2013, www.astm.orgBack to Top