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Significance and Use
Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is the starting material for the manufacture of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), which is used extensively in construction, electronics, packaging, and other industries. The vinyl chloride gas can escape during manufacturing, transportation, and polymerization stages. Residual monomer can also escape during subsequent fabrication processes.
Vinyl chloride is a toxic and explosive hazardous material.
Vinyl chloride is suspected to be a carcinogenic agent (4), and occupational exposure limits (OELs) have been established for this agent. For instance, the present U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard for VCM is 1.0 ppm (v) with a 0.5-ppm (v) action level; the maximum length of operator exposure at 5 ppm (v) is 15 min.
The method is made selective for vinyl chloride by choosing chromatograph columns that will separate vinyl chloride from other organic compounds in the sample.
The method meets requirements (for example, those of OSHA) for monitoring workplace atmospheres in vinyl chloride and poly(vinyl chloride) production and fabrication processes.
1.1 This test method describes the determination of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) in workplace atmospheres using a modified charcoal tube method (see Practice D3686).
1.2 This procedure is compatible with low flow rate personal sampling equipment. It can be used for personal or stationary monitoring. It cannot determine instantaneous fluctuations in concentration to detect maximum values. Alternative on-site procedures, such as gas chromatography or infrared spectrometry, must be used to measure fast-changing concentrations.
1.3 The range of this test method is from the limit of detection of approximately 0.01 to 100 ppm (v).
1.4 The sampling method provides a time-weighted average sample.
1.5 The values stated in SI units shall be regarded as the standard. Inch-pound units are provided for information only.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For more specific precautionary statements, see Section 9 and Warnings in 10.2.3 and 11.1.3.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D1356 Terminology Relating to Sampling and Analysis of Atmospheres
D3686 Practice for Sampling Atmospheres to Collect Organic Compound Vapors (Activated Charcoal Tube Adsorption Method)
E355 Practice for Gas Chromatography Terms and Relationships
ICS Number Code 13.040.30 (Workplace atmospheres)
UNSPSC Code 93141808(Occupational health or safety services); 41104008(Air samplers or collectors)