ASTM D4751 - 12

    Standard Test Method for Determining Apparent Opening Size of a Geotextile

    Active Standard ASTM D4751 | Developed by Subcommittee: D35.03

    Book of Standards Volume: 04.13


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    Significance and Use

    Using a geotextile as a medium to retain soil particles necessitates compatibility between it and the adjacent soil. This test method is used to indicate the apparent opening size in a geotextile, which reflects the approximate largest opening dimension available for soil to pass through.

    Test Method D4751 for the determination of opening size of geotextiles is acceptable for testing of commercial shipments of geotextiles. Current estimates of precision, between laboratories, are being established.

    In case of a dispute arising from differences in reported test results when using Test Method D4751 for acceptance testing of commercial shipments, the purchaser and the supplier should conduct comparative tests to determine if there is a statistical bias between their laboratories. Competent statistical assistance is recommended for the investigation of bias. As a minimum, the two parties should take a group of test specimens that are homogeneous as possible and that are from a lot of material of the type in question. The test specimens should then be randomly assigned in equal numbers to each laboratory for testing. The average results from the two laboratories should be compared using Students t-test for unpaired data and an acceptable probability level chosen by the two parties before the testing is begun. If a bias is found, either its cause must be found and corrected or the purchaser and the supplier must agree to interpret future test results in the light of the known bias.

    TABLE 1 Glass Bead Sizes

    Bead Size Range
    PassingRetainedBead Size DesignationA
    mmSieve NumberBmmSieve NumberBmmSieve Number
    2.0101.70121.712
    1.4141.18161.1816
    1.00180.850200.85020
    0.710250.600300.60030
    0.500350.425400.42540
    0.355450.300500.30050
    0.250600.212700.21270
    0.180800.150100 0.150100
    0.125120 0.106140 0.106140
    0.090170 0.075200 0.075200

    A The designated bead size is the retained on size of the sieve pair used to size the beads. For example, beads designated No. 40 are beads that pass the No. 35 sieve and are retained on the No. 40 sieve. These beads are typically sold as 35-40 beads.

    B See Specification E11.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method covers the determination the apparent opening size (AOS) of a geotextile by sieving glass beads through a geotextile.

    1.2 This test method shows the values in both SI units and inch-pound units. SI units is the technically correct name for the system of metric units known as the International System of Units. Inch-pound units is the technically correct name for the customary units used in the United States. The values in inch-pound units are provided for information only.

    1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory requirements prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    C136 Test Method for Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates

    D1776 Practice for Conditioning and Testing Textiles

    D4238 Test Method for Electrostatic Propensity of Textiles

    D4354 Practice for Sampling of Geosynthetics and Rolled Erosion Control Products(RECPs) for Testing

    D4439 Terminology for Geosynthetics

    E11 Specification for Woven Wire Test Sieve Cloth and Test Sieves


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 59.080.70 (Geotextiles)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 30121702(Geotextile)


    DOI: 10.1520/D4751-12

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