ASTM D471 - 12a

    Standard Test Method for Rubber Property—Effect of Liquids

    Active Standard ASTM D471 | Developed by Subcommittee: D11.15

    Book of Standards Volume: 09.01


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    Significance and Use

    4.1 Certain rubber articles, for example, seals, gaskets, hoses, diaphragms, and sleeves, may be exposed to oils, greases, fuels, and other fluids during service. The exposure may be continuous or intermittent and may occur over wide temperature ranges.

    4.2 Properties of rubber articles deteriorate during exposure to these liquids, affecting the performance of the rubber part, which can result in partial failure.

    4.3 This test method attempts to simulate service conditions through controlled accelerated testing, but may not give any direct correlation with actual part performance, since service conditions vary too widely. It yields comparative data on which to base judgment as to expected service quality.

    4.4 This test method is suitable for specification compliance testing, quality control, referee purposes, and research and development work.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method covers the required procedures to evaluate the comparative ability of rubber and rubber-like compositions to withstand the effect of liquids. It is designed for testing: (1) specimens of vulcanized rubber cut from standard sheets (see Practice D3182), (2) specimens cut from fabric coated with vulcanized rubber (see Test Methods D751), or (3) finished articles of commerce (see Practice D3183). This test method is not applicable to the testing of cellular rubbers, porous compositions, and compressed sheet packing, except as described in 11.2.2.

    1.2 ASTM Oils No. 2 and No. 3, formerly used in this test method as standard test liquids, are no longer commercially available and in 1993 were replaced with IRM 902 and IRM 903, respectively (see Appendix X1 for details).

    1.3 ASTM No. 1 Oil, previously used in this test method as a standard test liquid, is no longer commercially available and in 2005 was replaced with IRM 901; refer to Table 1 and Appendix X3 for details.

    TABLE 1 Specifications and Typical Properties of IRM Reference Oils

    Property

    IRM 901A

    IRM 902

    IRM 903

    IRM 905

    ASTM Method

    Specified Properties:

    Aniline Point, °C (°F)

      124 ± 1 (255 ± 2)

      93 ± 3 (199 ± 5)

      70± 1 (158 ± 2)

      115 ± 1 (239± 2)

    D611

    Kinematic Viscosity

     

     

     

     

     

     (mm2/s [cSt])

     

     

     

     

     

     38°C (100°F)

     

      ...

      31.9–34.1

      ...

    D445

     99°C (210°F)

      18.12–20.34

      19.2–21.5

      ...

      10.8–11.9

    D445

    Gravity, API, 16°C (60°F)

      28.8 ± 1

      19.0–21.0

      21.0–23.0

      ...

    D287

    Viscosity-Gravity Constant

      0.790–0.805

      0.860–0.870

      0.875–0.885

      ...

    D2140

    Flash Point COC, °C (°F)

      243(469) min

      232 (450) min

      163 (325) min

      243 (469) min

    D92

    Naphthenics, CN (%)

      27 (avg)

      35 min

      40 min

      ...

    D2140

    Paraffinics, CP (%)

      65 min

      50 max

      45 max

      ...

    D2140

     

    Typical Properties:

    Pour Point, °C (°F)

      −12 (10)

      −12 (10)

      −31 (−24)

      −15 (5)

    D97

    ASTM Color

      L 3.5

      L 2.5

      L 0.5

      L 1.0

    D1500

    Refractive Index

      1.4848

      1.5105

      1.5026

      1.4808

    D1747

    UV Absorbance, 260 nm

      0.8

      4.0

      2.2

      ...

    D2008

    Aromatics, CA (%)

      3

      12

      14

      4

    D2140

    A Refer to Appendix X3. Table X3.1 reflects the differences in the properties between ASTM No. 1 Oil and IRM 901 for reference purposes.
    TABLE 2 IRM 901 – 2012 Batch Test Results

    Property

    Method

    2005 Batch COA

    2005 Batch Current

    2012 Sample Data

    2012 Batch Average

    Viscosity, cSt @99°C

    D445

    19.58

    19.5

    18.8

    18.7

    18.8

    18.7

    18.8

    18.8

    18.8

    18.9

    18.7

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Gravity, API @16°C

    D287

    28.6

    28.9

    28.9

    28.9

    28.8

    28.9

    28.9

    28.9

    28.9

    28.9

    28.9

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Flash Point COC, °C

    D92

    287

    313

    306

    289

    292

    288

    296

    299

    303

    294

    294

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Aniline Point, °C

    D611

    123.8

    124.7

    124.8

    124.8

    124.7

    124.3

    124.5

    124.8

    124.8

    124.9

    124.6

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Viscosity- Gravity Constant

    D2140

    0.796

    0.798

    0.799

    0.799

    0.800

    0.799

    0.799

    0.799

    0.799

    0.799

    0.799

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Naphthenics, Cn%

    D2140

    24

    26

    26

    27

    28

    27

    26

    26

    27

    29

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Paraffinics, Cp%

    D2140

    70

    72

    71

    71

    69

    70

    71

    71

    71

    71

    70


    1.4 ASTM No. 5 Oil was accepted into Specification D5900 as an industry reference material in 2010 and designated as IRM 905. The composition, and properties of this immersion oil were not changed and the data in Table 1 remains current. Refer to Appendix X4 for other details.

    1.5 The specifications and properties listed in Table 1 for IRM 901, IRM 902, IRM 903, and IRM 905 are also maintained in Specification D5900.

    1.5.1 The subcommittee responsible for maintaining Test Method D471, presently D11.15, shall review the data in Specification D5900 to ensure that it is identical to that which appears in Test Method D471. This shall be accomplished at the time of the 5 year review or more frequently when necessary.

    1.6 Historical, technical, and background information regarding the conversion from ASTM No. 1, ASTM No. 2, and ASTM No. 3 Oils to IRM 901, IRM 902, and IRM 903 immersion oils is maintained in Practice D5964.

    1.6.1 The subcommittee responsible for maintaining Test Method D471, presently D11.15, shall review the data in Practice D5964 to ensure that it is identical to that which appears in Test Method D471. This shall be accomplished at the time of the 5 year review or more frequently when necessary.

    1.7 This test method includes the following:

    Change in Mass (after immersion)

    D92 Test Method for Flash and Fire Points by Cleveland Open Cup Tester

    D97 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products

    D287 Test Method for API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Petroleum Products (Hydrometer Method)

    D412 Test Methods for Vulcanized Rubber and Thermoplastic Elastomers--Tension

    D445 Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity)

    D611 Test Methods for Aniline Point and Mixed Aniline Point of Petroleum Products and Hydrocarbon Solvents

    D751 Test Methods for Coated Fabrics

    D865 Test Method for Rubber--Deterioration by Heating in Air (Test Tube Enclosure)

    D975 Specification for Diesel Fuel Oils

    D1217 Test Method for Density and Relative Density (Specific Gravity) of Liquids by Bingham Pycnometer

    D1415 Test Method for Rubber Property--International Hardness

    D1500 Test Method for ASTM Color of Petroleum Products (ASTM Color Scale)

    D1747 Test Method for Refractive Index of Viscous Materials

    D2008 Test Method for Ultraviolet Absorbance and Absorptivity of Petroleum Products

    D2140 Practice for Calculating Carbon-Type Composition of Insulating Oils of Petroleum Origin

    D2240 Test Method for Rubber Property--Durometer Hardness

    D2699 Test Method for Research Octane Number of Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel

    D3182 Practice for Rubber--Materials, Equipment, and Procedures for Mixing Standard Compounds and Preparing Standard Vulcanized Sheets

    D3183 Practice for Rubber--Preparation of Pieces for Test Purposes from Products

    D4483 Practice for Evaluating Precision for Test Method Standards in the Rubber and Carbon Black Manufacturing Industries

    D4485 Specification for Performance of Active API Service Category Engine Oils

    D4806 Specification for Denatured Fuel Ethanol for Blending with Gasolines for Use as Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel

    D5900 Specification for Physical and Chemical Properties of Industry Reference Materials (IRM)

    D5964 Practice for Rubber IRM 901, IRM 902, and IRM 903 Replacement Oils forASTM No. 1, ASTM No. 2, and ASTM No. 3 Oils

    E145 Specification for Gravity-Convection and Forced-Ventilation Ovens

    SAE Standards

    J300 Engine Oil Viscosity Classification


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 83.060 (Rubber)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 13100000(Rubber and elastomers)


    DOI: 10.1520/D0471-12A

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