ASTM D4675 - 14a

    Standard Guide for Selection and Use of Flat Strapping Materials1

    Active Standard ASTM D4675 | Developed by Subcommittee: D10.25

    Book of Standards Volume: 15.10


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    Significance and Use

    4.1 This guide is intended to assist the user in selecting strapping material(s) and application method(s) for evaluation when subjected to handling, transit, and storage tests. It describes general load, unit and package types, strapping properties, strapping performance, weight considerations, shear planes, component frictional characteristics, and geometry.

    TABLE 1 Strapping Applications Commonly Used for Packaging, Unitization, and Load Securement

    For guidance purposes only. The strapping types and sizes indicated for specific applications are typical. The table is not intended to recommend or specify.

    Industry

    Product

    Specification D3953 for Strapping Flat Steel and Seals

    Specification D3950 for Strapping Nonmetallic (and Joining Methods)

    Hand or Machine Applied

    Hand Applied

    Hand or Machine Applied

    Type I Steel Regular Duty

    Type I Steel Regular Duty High Strength

    Type I Steel Heavy Duty

    Type IA Bonded, Woven, or Composite Polyester Cord

    Type I Bonded Rayon Cord

    Type II
    Polypropylene

    Type III Nylon

    Type IV Polyester

    Moderate Tensile Strength
    Low Elongation
    High Retained Tension
    Well suited for rigid and
    moderate
    expanding units
    Not well suited for shrinking units.

    High Tensile Strength
    Low Elongation
    High Retained Tension
    Well suited for rigid and
    moderate
    expanding units
    Not well suited for shrinking units.

    High Tensile Strength
    Moderate
    Elongation
    High Retained Tension
    Well suited for rigid and
    moderate
    expanding units
    Not well suited for shrinking units.

    Good Tensile Strength
    Moderate
    Elongation
    Good Retained
    Tension
    High Energy-to-Break
    Good Notch
    Sensitivity
    Well suited for shrinking, rigid, and expanding units.

    Moderate Tensile Strength
    Moderate
    Elongation
    Good Notch
    Sensitivity
    Well suited for shrinking, rigid, and moderate
    expanding
    units.

    Low Tensile Strength
    High Elongation
    Low Retained Tension
    Good Tension
    Recovery
    Well suited for shrinking and
    expanding
    units.

    Moderate Tensile Strength
    Good Elongation
    Good Retained Tension
    Good Tension
    Recovery
    Well suited for shrinking, rigid, and expanding units.

    Good Tensile Strength
    Moderate
    Elongation
    Good Retained Tension
    High Energy-to-Break
    Well suited for shrinking, rigid, and expanding units.

    General

    Appliances

    3/8 ” & 1/2 ”

     

     

     

     

    7/16 ”

    7/16 ”

    5/8 ”

    Carton Closure

     

     

     

     

    3/16 ”, 1/4 ” & 3/8 ”

    1/4 ” & 3/8 ”

    3/8 ”

     

    Flat Glass

     

    5/8 ” & 3/4 ”

     

    5/8 ” & 3/4 ”

     

     

     

    5/8 ” & 3/4 ”

    PVC Pipe

    3/4 ”

    5/8 ” & 3/4 ”

     

    1/2 ”, 5/8 ” & 3/4 ”

     

    7/16 ”

    7/16 ”

    1/2 ”, 5/8 ” & 3/4 ”

    Agriculture

    Food Products in Wood Bins

     

     

    3/4 ”

    5/8 ” & 3/4 ”

     

     

     

    5/8 ”

    Hay Bailing

     

     

     

     

     

    1/2 ”

     

    1/2 ”

    Cotton

     

     

    3/4 ”

     

     

     

     

    3/4 ”

    1. Scope

    1.1 This guide1 covers information on flat strapping materials (steel and nonmetallic) for the prospective user wanting initial guidance in selecting a strapping material and information on suggested application methods for use in packaging (closing, reinforcing, baling, bundling, unitizing, or palletizing), and loading applications (load unitization and securement to transport vehicle). The use applies to handling, securement, storage, and distribution systems.

    1.2 Carrier associations have established certain packaging and loading requirements that (in some cases) specify the type of strap, the minimum size or strength, the type of joint or seal, and the number of straps, seals, and joints that must be used for particular types of shipments or under certain conditions. Users should consult with their carriers initially to determine if there are applicable published requirements. Individual carriers may establish their own requirements. (See 2.2.)

    1.3 Limitations—This guide is not intended to give specific information as to how strapping must be used in any particular packaging or loading situation. Rather, it is intended to be informational in nature and is offered as a starting point for the testing of strapping being considered by the user. Thorough user testing is essential, as is a review of pertinent regulations that can influence strap selection (size and type), and application methods.

    1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.

    1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific safety hazard guidelines, however, are provided in Section 5.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D996 Terminology of Packaging and Distribution Environments

    D3950 Specification for Strapping, Nonmetallic (and Joining Methods)

    D3953 Specification for Strapping, Flat Steel and Seals

    D4169 Practice for Performance Testing of Shipping Containers and Systems

    Other Standards

    AssociationofAmerica Railing Available from Association of American Railroads--Railing, Association of American Railroads--Railing Highwoods Center, 7001 Weston Parkway, Suite 200, Cary, NC 27513.


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 55.040 (Packaging materials and accessories)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code


    DOI: 10.1520/D4675-14A

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