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Significance and Use
4.1 This guide is intended to assist the user in selecting strapping material(s) and application method(s) for evaluation when subjected to handling, transit, and storage tests. It describes general load, unit and package types, strapping properties, strapping performance, weight considerations, shear planes, component frictional characteristics, and geometry.
1.1 This guide covers information on flat strapping materials (steel and nonmetallic) for the prospective user wanting initial guidance in selecting a strapping material and information on suggested application methods for use in packaging (closing, reinforcing, baling, bundling, unitizing, or palletizing), and loading applications (load unitization and securement to transport vehicle). The use applies to handling, securement, storage, and distribution systems.
1.2 Carrier associations have established certain packaging and loading requirements that (in some cases) specify the type of strap, the minimum size or strength, the type of joint or seal, and the number of straps, seals, and joints that must be used for particular types of shipments or under certain conditions. Users should consult with their carriers initially to determine if there are applicable published requirements. Individual carriers may establish their own requirements. (See .)
1.3 Limitations—This guide is not intended to give specific information as to how strapping must be used in any particular packaging or loading situation. Rather, it is intended to be informational in nature and is offered as a starting point for the testing of strapping being considered by the user. Thorough user testing is essential, as is a review of pertinent regulations that can influence strap selection (size and type), and application methods.
1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific safety hazard guidelines, however, are provided in Section .
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
Other Standards (most current revisions)Association of American Railroads (AAR/TTCI)&mdash Closed Car Loading Methods and Open Top Loading Rules Available from Association of American Railroads, Transportation Technology Center, Inc. (AAR/TTCI), 55500 Dot Road Pueblo, CO 81001, http://www.aar.com. Driver’s Handbook on Cargo Securement Availa IMO/ILO/UN ECE Guidelines for Packing or Cargo Transport Units (CTUs) Available from International Maritime Organization, Publishing Service, 4 Albert Embankment, London, SE1 7SR, United Kingdom, http://www.imo.org. ISTA, International Safe Transit Association, Pre-Shipment Test Procedure Available from International Safe Transit Association (ISTA), 1400 Abbot Road, Suite 160, East Lansing, MI 48823-1900, http://www.ista.org. National Motor Freight Classification 100-L, Item 222, Section 7 Available from National Motor Freight Traffic Association (NMFTA), 1001 N. Fairfax St., Alexandria, VA 22314, http://www.nmfta.org. Uniform Freight Classification Code, Rule 41, Section 9 Available from National Railroad Freight Classification, available from Uniform Classification Committee, 222 South Riverside Plaza, Chicago, IL 60606.
D3950 Specification for Strapping, Nonmetallic (and Joining Methods)
D3953 Specification for Strapping, Flat Steel and Seals
D4169 Practice for Performance Testing of Shipping Containers and Systems
ICS Number Code 55.040 (Packaging materials and accessories)
UNSPSC Code 24120000(Packaging materials)
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ASTM D4675-14a, Standard Guide for Selection and Use of Flat Strapping Materials1, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2014, www.astm.orgBack to Top