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Significance and Use
4.1 This guide is intended to assist the user in selecting strapping material(s) and application method(s), for evaluation, when subjected to handling, transit, and storage tests. It describes general load, unit and package types, strapping properties, strapping performance, weight considerations, shear planes, component frictional characteristics, and geometry.
1.1 This guide covers information on flat strapping materials (steel and nonmetallic) for the prospective user wanting initial guidance in selecting a strapping material and information on suggested application methods for use in packaging (closing, reinforcing, baling, bundling, unitizing, or palletizing) and loading applications (load unitization and securement to transport vehicle). The use applies to handling, securement, storage, and distribution systems.
1.2 Carrier associations have established certain packaging and loading requirements that (in some cases) specify the type of strap, the minimum size or strength, the type of joint or seal, and the number of straps, seals, and joints that must be used for particular types of shipments or under certain conditions. Users should consult with their carriers initially to determine if there are applicable published requirements. Individual carriers may establish their own requirements. (See 2.2.)
1.3 Limitations—This guide is not intended to give specific information as to how strapping must be used in any particular packaging or loading situation. Rather, it is intended to be informational in nature and is offered as a starting point for testing of strapping being considered by the user. Thorough user testing is essential, as is a review of pertinent regulations that can influence strap selection (size and type), and application methods.
1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI (metric) units.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific safety hazard guidelines, however, are provided in Section 5.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D996 Terminology of Packaging and Distribution Environments
D3950 Specification for Strapping, Nonmetallic (and Joining Methods)
D3953 Specification for Strapping, Flat Steel and Seals
D4169 Practice for Performance Testing of Shipping Containers and Systems
Other StandardsAssociationofAmerica Railing Available from Association of American Railroads--Railing, Association of American Railroads--Railing Highwoods Center, 7001 Weston Parkway, Suite 200, Cary, NC 27513.
ICS Number Code 55.040 (Packaging materials and accessories)