Significance and Use
This test method is used to determine the density of cohesionless soil used in the construction of earth embankments and road fills, or of cohesionless soils used for structure backfill, bedding and backfill for pipe, or filters. This test method is used as the basis for acceptance of soils compacted to a specified density or to a specified relative density.
This test method may be useful in determining the density of cohesionless soils in a confined or limited space since this test method requires less working area than other methods.
A predetermined calibration equation is necessary to use this procedure (see Annex A1). It is assumed there is a linear relationship between the density in place and the mass of dry soil per inch of test hole measured by the sleeve method. This may not be true for certain soils or the linear relationship may exist only for a particular range of densities.
The quality of the results produced by this standard is dependent on the competence of the personnel performing it, and the suitability of the equipment and facilities used. Agencies that meet the criteria of Practice D3740 are generally considered capable of competent and objective testing. Users of this standard are cautioned that compliance with Practice D3740 does not in itself assure reliable results. Reliable results depend on many factors: Practice D3740 provides a means of evaluating some of those factors.
1.1 This test method covers the determination of the density of soil in place by the sleeve method.
1.2 The sleeve method of determining the density of soil in place is used for cohesionless, granular soils for which other methods of determining the density (sand cone, test pit, and the like) may not be practical. Typically, the sleeve method is applicable for soils that are predominantly fine gravel size, with a maximum of 5 % fines, and a maximum particle size of 3/4 in. (19.0 mm).
Note 1—There have been other methods developed for testing cohesionless soils. Compared to other methods, this procedure is convenient for field construction control testing because smaller and lighter equipment is used and the test can be performed in a smaller area.
1.3 A calibration equation is necessary in the application of this test method to obtain a reliable value of the in-place density of the soil (see Annex A1). The calibration equation is used to calculate the density of the soil in place from the mass of dry soil per inch of test hole measured by the sleeve method.
1.3.1 The calibration equation is predetermined for a particular soil type that is to be tested. When the soil changes significantly in either gradation or particle angularity, the calibration equation may have to be adjusted or redefined before the sleeve method can be used.
1.3.2 There may be certain soils meeting the general description in 1.2 for which a calibration equation may not be appropriate due to unsatisfactory correlation of the data. The sleeve method would not be applicable for these soils.
1.3.3 There may be certain soils meeting the description in 1.2 for which the calibration equation may be applicable only for a certain range of densities. The sleeve method will give reliable values of the density in place only within that range of densities.
1.4 This test method uses inch-pound units with SI rationalized units; that is, a combined standard.
1.4.1 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.
1.4.2 The converted inch-pound units used the gravitational system of units. In this system, the pound (lbf) represents a unit of force (weight), while the unit for mass is slugs. The converted slug unit is not given, unless dynamic (F = ma) calculations are involved.
1.4.3 It is common practice in the engineering profession to concurrently use pounds to represent both a unit of mass (lbm) and a unit of force (lbf). This implicitly combines two separate systems of units; that is, the absolute system and the gravitational system. It is scientifically undesirable to combine the use of two separate sets of inch-pound units within a single standard. This standard has been written using the gravitational system of units when dealing with the inch-pound system. In this system the pound (lbf) represents a unit of force (weight). However, the use of balances or scales recording pounds of mass (lbm), or the recording of density in lbm/ft3 should not be regarded as nonconformance with this test method.
1.5 All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026 unless superseded by this standard.
1.5.1 The procedures used to specify how data are collected, recorded or calculated in this standard are regarded as the industry standard. In addition they are representative of the significant digits that generally should be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the user’s objectives; and it is common practice to increase or reduce significant digits or reported data to be commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope of this standard to consider significant digits used in analytical methods for engineering design.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
D2216 Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
D3740 Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
D4253 Test Methods for Maximum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils Using a Vibratory Table
D4254 Test Methods for Minimum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils and Calculation of Relative Density
D4643 Test Method for Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil by Microwave Oven Heating
D4753 Guide for Evaluating, Selecting, and Specifying Balances and Standard Masses for Use in Soil, Rock, and Construction Materials Testing
D4959 Test Method for Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil By Direct Heating
D6026 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
E11 Specification for Woven Wire Test Sieve Cloth and Test Sieves
compaction control; density testing; field density; field test; in-place density; quality control; relative density; soil compaction; soil test; Calibration--soil/rock analysis instrumentation; Cohesionless soil; Compaction measurement--soils; Density--soil/rock/related materials; Depth profiling; Field density; Field testing--soil; Granular soil; In-place density (of soil); Quality control (QC)--soil/related materials; Relative density; Sleeve method;
ICS Number Code 93.020 (Earth works. Excavations. Foundation construction. Underground works)
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Citing ASTM Standards
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