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Significance and Use
5.1 Because of scale effects, there is no simple method of predicting the in situ shear strength of a rock discontinuity from the results of laboratory tests on small specimens; in situ tests on large specimens are the most reliable means.
5.2 Results can be employed in stability analysis of rock engineering problems, for example, in studies of slopes, underground openings, and dam foundations. In applying the test results, the pore water pressure conditions and the possibility of progressive failure must be assessed for the design case, as they may differ from the test conditions.
5.3 Tests on intact rock that are free from planes of weakness are usually accomplished using laboratory triaxial testing. Intact rock can, however, be tested in situ in direct shear if the rock is weak and if the specimen block encapsulation is sufficiently strong.
1.1 This test method covers the measurement of peak and residual direct shear strength in a drained condition of in situ rock discontinuities as a function of stress normal to the sheared plane. This sheared plane is usually a significant discontinuity that may or may not be filled with gouge or soil-like material.
1.4 All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D422 Test Method for Particle-Size Analysis of Soils
D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
D2216 Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
D3740 Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
D4318 Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils
D6026 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
D6913 Test Methods for Particle-Size Distribution (Gradation) of Soils Using Sieve Analysis
ICS Number Code 93.020 (Earth works. Excavations. Foundation construction. Underground works)
ASTM D4554-12, Standard Test Method for In Situ Determination of Direct Shear Strength of Rock Discontinuities, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2012, www.astm.orgBack to Top