ASTM D4547 - 09

    Standard Guide for Sampling Waste and Soils for Volatile Organic Compounds

    Active Standard ASTM D4547 | Developed by Subcommittee: D34.01.02

    Book of Standards Volume: 11.04


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    Significance and Use

    This guide describes sample collection and handling procedures designed to minimize losses of VOCs. The principal mechanisms for the loss of VOCs from materials during collection, handling and storage are volatilization and biodegradation. Susceptibility of various VOCs to these two loss mechanisms is both compound and matrix specific. In general, compounds with higher vapor pressures are more susceptible to volatilization than compounds with lower vapor pressures. Also, aerobically degradable compounds are generally more susceptible to biodegradation than anaerobically degradable compounds. In some cases, the formation of other compounds not originally present in the material can occur. Loss or gain of VOCs leads to analytical results that are unrepresentative of field conditions.

    Ancillary information concerning sample collection, handling and storage for VOC analysis is provided in Appendices Appendix X1, Appendix X2, and Appendix X3. These appendixes and cited references are recommended reading for those unfamiliar with the many challenges presented during the collection, handling and storage of samples for VOC analysis.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This guide describes recommended procedures for the collection, handling, and preparation of solid waste, soil, and sediment samples for subsequent determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This class of compounds includes low molecular weight aromatics, hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, ketones, acetates, nitriles, acrylates, ethers, and sulfides with boiling points below 200° Celsius (C) that are insoluble or slightly soluble in water.

    1.2 Methods of sample collection, handling, storage, and preparation for analysis are described.

    1.3 This guide does not cover the details of sampling design, laboratory preparation of containers, and the analysis of the samples.

    1.4 It is recommended that this guide be used in conjunction with Guide D 4687.

    1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

    1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D1193 Specification for Reagent Water

    D1586 Test Method for Penetration Test (SPT) and Split-Barrel Sampling of Soils

    D3550 Practice for Thick Wall, Ring-Lined, Split Barrel, Drive Sampling of Soils

    D4687 Guide for General Planning of Waste Sampling

    D4700 Guide for Soil Sampling from the Vadose Zone

    D5058 Practices for Compatibility of Screening Analysis of Waste

    D5792 Practice for Generation of Environmental Data Related to Waste Management Activities: Development of Data Quality Objectives

    D6051 Guide for Composite Sampling and Field Subsampling for Environmental Waste Management Activities

    D6282 Guide for Direct Push Soil Sampling for Environmental Site Characterizations

    D6418 Practice for Using the Disposable En Core Sampler for Sampling and Storing Soil for Volatile Organic Analysis

    D6640 Practice for Collection and Handling of Soils Obtained in Core Barrel Samplers for Environmental Investigations

    E856 Definitions of Terms and Abbreviations Relating to Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Refuse Derived Fuel


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 13.080.05 (Examination of soil in general)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code


    Referencing This Standard

    DOI: 10.1520/D4547-09

    ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.

    Citation Format

    ASTM D4547-09, Standard Guide for Sampling Waste and Soils for Volatile Organic Compounds, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2009, www.astm.org

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