Active Standard ASTM D4546 | Developed by Subcommittee: D18.05
Book of Standards Volume: 04.08
Historical (view previous versions of standard)
Significance and Use
The soil swell/collapse strains measured from these test methods can be used to develop estimates of heave or settlement for a confined soil profile subject to one-dimensional heave or settlement, or stress-induced settlement following wetting-induced heave/settlement. They can also be used to estimate the pressure that would be necessary to prevent swelling. Selection of test method, loading, and inundation sequences should, as closely as possible, simulate field conditions because relatively small variations in unit weight and water content, or sequence of loading and wetting can significantly alter the test results. (See 6.1.8 and Refs (1-5).)
Note 2—Notwithstanding the statement on precision and bias contained in this standard: The precision of this test method is dependent on the competence of the personnel performing the test and the suitability of the equipment and facilities used. Agencies which meet the criteria of Practice D3740 are generally considered capable of competent and objective testing. Users of this test method are cautioned that compliance with Practice D3740 does not in itself assure reliable testing. Reliable testing depends on several factors; Practice D3740 provides a means of evaluating some of these factors.
1.1 These test methods cover three alternative laboratory methods for measuring free swell, swell pressure, and the magnitude of one-dimensional swell or collapse of compacted or intact cohesive soils.
Note 1—Refer to Sections 4, 5, 6 and 13.8 to determine the best method for a particular application.
1.2 The test methods can be used to measure the magnitude of one-dimensional wetting-induced swell or collapse (hydrocompression) under different vertical (axial) pressures, as well as the magnitude of swell pressure and the magnitude of free swell. It can also be used to obtain data for stress-induced compression following wetting-induced swell or collapse.
1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values stated in inch-pound units are approximate.
1.4 All measured and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026.
1.4.1 The method used to specify how data are collected, calculated, or recorded in this standard is not directly related to the accuracy to which the data can be applied in design or other uses. How one applies the results obtained using this standard is beyond its scope.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D422 Test Method for Particle-Size Analysis of Soils
D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
D698 Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12 400 ft-lbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3))
D854 Test Methods for Specific Gravity of Soil Solids by Water Pycnometer
D1557 Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3))
D1587 Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Soils for Geotechnical Purposes
D2216 Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
D2435 Test Methods for One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Soils Using Incremental Loading
D3550 Practice for Thick Wall, Ring-Lined, Split Barrel, Drive Sampling of Soils
D3740 Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
D3877 Test Methods for One-Dimensional Expansion, Shrinkage, and Uplift Pressure of Soil-Lime Mixtures
D4220 Practices for Preserving and Transporting Soil Samples
D4318 Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils
D4718 Practice for Correction of Unit Weight and Water Content for Soils Containing Oversize Particles
D4753 Guide for Evaluating, Selecting, and Specifying Balances and Standard Masses for Use in Soil, Rock, and Construction Materials Testing
D6026 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
E145 Specification for Gravity-Convection and Forced-Ventilation Ovens
ICS Number Code 93.020 (Earth works. Excavations. Foundation construction. Underground works)