Active Standard ASTM D4546 | Developed by Subcommittee: D18.05
Book of Standards Volume: 04.08
Historical (view previous versions of standard)
Significance and Use
5.1 The wetting-induced swell/collapse strains measured from Test Methods A and B can be used to develop estimates of heave or settlement of a confined soil profile (1 and 2).4 They can also be used to estimate the magnitudes of the swell pressure and the free swell strain. The load-induced strains after wetting from Test Method C can be used to estimate stress-induced settlement following wetting-induced heave or settlement. Selection of test method, loading, and inundation sequences should, as closely as possible, simulate field conditions because relatively small variations in density and water content, or sequence of loading and wetting can significantly alter the test results (3 and 4).
1.1 This standard covers two laboratory test methods for measuring the magnitude of one-dimensional wetting-induced swell or collapse of unsaturated soils and one method for measuring load-induced compression subsequent to wetting-induced deformation.
1.1.1 Test Method A is a procedure for measuring one-dimensional wetting-induced swell or hydrocompression (collapse) of reconstituted specimens simulating field condition of compacted fills. The magnitude of swell pressure (the minimum vertical stress required to prevent swelling), and free swell (percent swell under a pressure of 1 kPa or 20 lbf/ft2) can also be determined from the results of Test Method A.
1.1.2 Test Method B is a procedure for measuring one-dimensional wetting-induced swell or collapse deformation of intact specimens obtained from a natural deposit or from an existing compacted fill. The magnitude of swell pressure and free swell can also be determined from the results of Test Method B.
1.1.3 Test Method C is a procedure for measuring load-induced strains on a reconstituted or intact specimen after the specimen has undergone wetting-induced swell or collapse deformation.
1.2 In Test Method A, a series of reconstituted specimens duplicating compaction condition of the fine fraction of the soil in the field (excluding the oversize particles) are assembled in consolidometer units. Different loads corresponding to different fill depths are applied to different specimens and each specimen is given access to free water until the process of primary swell or collapse is completed (Fig. 1) under a constant vertical total stress (Fig. 2). The resulting swell or collapse deformations are measured. This test method can be referred to as wetting-after-loading tests on multiple reconstituted specimens. The data from these tests can be used to estimate one-dimensional ground surface heave or settlement that can occur due to full wetting after fill construction. In addition, the magnitude of swell pressure and the magnitude of free swell can be interpreted from the test results.
1.3 Test Method B is commonly used for measuring one-dimensional wetting-induced swell or hydrocompression of individual intact samples. This method can be referred to as single-point wetting-after-loading test. The vertical pressure at wetting for the specimen is chosen equal to the vertical in-situ stress (overburden stress plus structural stress, if any) corresponding to the sampling depth. The test result indicates the amount of heave or hydrocompression that can result when the soil at a given fill depth is wetted from the current moisture condition to full inundation condition. If intact specimens from various depths are tested, the swell or collapse strain data can be used to estimate heave or settlement of the ground surface. If the objective of the test is to measure swell pressure for an expansive soil, a series of intact specimens from a given depth zone can be wetted under a range of pressures (similar to Test Method A) and the results interpreted to determine the magnitude of the swell pressure.
1.4 Test Method C is for measuring load-induced strains after wetting-induced swell or collapse deformation has occurred. This method can be referred to as loading-after-wetting test. The test can be performed on either intact or reconstituted specimens, and can be on one specimen or a series of specimens. The results would apply to situations where new fill, additional structural loads, or both, are applied to the ground that has previously gone through wetting-induced heave or settlement. The first part of the test is the same as in Test Method A or B. After completion of the swell or collapse under a given vertical load, additional vertical load increments are applied to the specimen in the same manner as in a consolidation test (Test Methods D2435) and the load-induced strains are measured.
1.5 It shall be the responsibility of the agency requesting this test to specify the magnitude of each load for Test Method A and Test Method B. For Test Method C, the agency requesting the test should specify the magnitude of the stress under which the specimen is wetted, and the magnitudes of the additional stress increments subsequent to wetting.
1.6 These test methods do not address the measurement of soil suction and suction-controlled swell-collapse tests. The addition of suction-controlled wetting does not constitute nonconformance to these test methods.
1.7 These test methods have a number of limitations and their results can be affected by one or a combination of factors including the effect of significant amounts of oversize particles (in Test Method A), sampling disturbance (in Test Method B) and differences between the degree of wetting in the laboratory test specimens and in the field. For details of these and other limitations, see Section 6.
1.8 Units—The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values stated in inch-pound units are approximate equivalent values provided for information purposes only and are not considered standard. Test results recorded in units other than SI shall not be regarded as nonconformance with this standard. Figures depicting the test results can be either in SI units or in inch-pound units.
1.8.1 The converted inch-pound units use the gravitational system of units. In this system, the pound (lbf) represents a unit of force (weight), while the unit for mass is slugs. The slug unit is not given, unless dynamic (F = ma) calculations are involved.
1.8.2 It is common practice in the engineering/construction profession to concurrently use pounds to represent both a unit of mass (lbm) and of force (lbf). This implicitly combines two separate systems of units; that is, the absolute system and the gravitational system. It is scientifically undesirable to combine the use of two separate sets of inch-pound units within a single standard. As stated, this standard includes the gravitational system of inch-pound units and does not use/present the slug unit for mass. However, the use of balances or scales recording pounds of mass (lbm) or recording density in lbm/ft3 shall not be regarded as nonconformance with this standard.
1.8.3 The terms density and unit weight are often used interchangeably. Density is mass per unit volume whereas unit weight is force per unit volume. In this standard density is given only in SI units. After the density has been determined, the unit weight is calculated in SI or inch-pound units, or both.
1.9 All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026.
1.9.1 The procedures used to specify how data are collected/recorded, or calculated, in this standard are regarded as the industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the significant digits that generally should be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any consideration for the user’s objectives; and it is common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to be commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope of this standard to consider significant digits used in analysis methods for engineering design.
1.10 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C127 Test Method for Density, Relative Density (Specific Gravity), and Absorption of Coarse Aggregate
D422 Test Method for Particle-Size Analysis of Soils
D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
D854 Test Methods for Specific Gravity of Soil Solids by Water Pycnometer
D1587 Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Soils for Geotechnical Purposes
D2216 Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
D2435 Test Methods for One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Soils Using Incremental Loading
D2487 Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
D2488 Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)
D3550 Practice for Thick Wall, Ring-Lined, Split Barrel, Drive Sampling of Soils
D3740 Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
D4220 Practices for Preserving and Transporting Soil Samples
D4318 Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils
D4718 Practice for Correction of Unit Weight and Water Content for Soils Containing Oversize Particles
D4753 Guide for Evaluating, Selecting, and Specifying Balances and Standard Masses for Use in Soil, Rock, and Construction Materials Testing
D6026 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
D6027 Practice for Calibrating Linear Displacement Transducers for Geotechnical Purposes
D6913 Test Methods for Particle-Size Distribution (Gradation) of Soils Using Sieve Analysis
ICS Number Code 93.020 (Earth works. Excavations. Foundation construction. Underground works)
UNSPSC Code 11111501(Soil)