Active Standard ASTM D4533 | Developed by Subcommittee: D35.01
Book of Standards Volume: 04.13
Historical (view previous versions of standard)
Significance and Use
The trapezoid tear method is a test that produces tension along a reasonably defined course such that the tear propagates across the width of the specimen. The trapezoid tearing strength for woven fabrics is determined primarily by the properties of the yarns that are gripped in the clamps. In nonwoven fabrics, because the individual fibers are more or less randomly oriented and capable of some reorientation in the direction of the applied load, the maximum trapezoid tearing strength is reached when the resistance to further reorientation is greater than the force required to rupture one or more fibers simultaneously.
The trapezoid tearing strength method is useful for estimating the relative tear resistance of different fabrics or different directions in the same fabric.
This test method may be used for acceptance testing of commercial shipments; however, caution is advised since information about between-laboratory precision is incomplete. Comparative tests as directed in 5.3.1 may be advisable.
In case of a dispute arising from differences in reported test results when using this test method for acceptance testing of commercial shipments, the purchaser and the supplier should conduct comparative tests to determine if there is a statistical bias between their laboratories. Competent statistical assistance is recommended for the investigation of bias. As a minimum, the two parties should take a group of test specimens that are as homogeneous as possible and that are from a lot of material of the type in question. Test specimens should then be randomly assigned in equal numbers to each laboratory for testing. The average results from the two laboratories should be compared using the appropriate Student's t-test and an acceptable probability level chosen by the two parties before testing is begun. If a bias is found, either its cause must be found and corrected or the purchaser and the supplier must agree to interpret future test results in the light of the known bias.
Most geotextile fabrics can be tested by this test method. Some modification of clamping techniques may be necessary for a given fabric, depending upon its structure. Special adaptation may be necessary with strong fabrics, or fabrics made from glass fibers, to prevent them from slipping in the clamps or being damaged as a result of being gripped in the clamps.
This test method may be used with constant-rate-of-traverse (CRT) or constant-rate-of-extension (CRE) type tension machines. However, there may be no overall correlation between the results obtained with the CRT machine and the CRE machine. Consequently, these two tension testers cannot be used interchangeably. In case of controversy, the CRE machine shall prevail.
1.1 This test method is an index test used to measure the force required to continue or propagate a tear in woven or non-woven geotextiles by the trapezoid method. While useful for quality control and acceptance testing, the trapezoid tear test does not provide all the information needed for all design applications and other test methods should be used.
1.2 This test method is applicable to most geotextiles that include woven fabrics, nonwoven fabrics, layered fabrics, knit fabrics, and felts that are used for geotextile applications.
1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D76 Specification for Tensile Testing Machines for Textiles
D123 Terminology Relating to Textiles
D1776 Practice for Conditioning and Testing Textiles
D2905 Practice for Statements on Number of Specimens for Textiles
D4354 Practice for Sampling of Geosynthetics for Testing
D4439 Terminology for Geosynthetics
ICS Number Code 59.080.70 (Geotextiles)