Active Standard ASTM D4491 | Developed by Subcommittee: D35.03
Book of Standards Volume: 04.13
Historical (view previous versions of standard)
Significance and Use
These test methods are considered satisfactory for acceptance testing of commercial shipments of geotextiles since the methods have been used extensively in the trade for acceptance testing.
In case of a dispute arising from differences in reported test results when using these test methods for acceptance testing of commercial shipments, the purchaser and the supplier should conduct comparative tests to determine if there is a statistical bias between their laboratories. Competent statistical assistance is recommended for the investigation of bias. As a minimum, the two parties should take a group of test specimens that are as homogeneous as possible and that are from a lot of material of the type in question. The test specimens should then be randomly assigned in numbers to each laboratory for testing. The average results from the two laboratories should be compared using Student's t-test for unpaired data and an acceptable probability level chosen by the two parties before the start of testing. If a bias is found, either its cause must be found and corrected, or the purchaser and the supplier must agree to interpret future test results in light of the known bias.
Permittivity is an indicator of the quantity of water that can pass through a geotextile in an isolated condition.
As there are many applications and environmental conditions under which a geotextile may be used, care should be taken when attempting to apply the results of these test methods to the field performance of a geotextile.
Since there are geotextiles of various thicknesses in use, evaluation in terms of their Darcy coefficient of permeabilities can be misleading. In many instances, it is more significant to evaluate the quantity of water that would pass through a geotextile under a given head over a particular cross-sectional area; this is expressed as permittivity.
If the permeability of an individual geotextile is of importance, a nominal coefficient of permeability, as related to geotechnical engineering, may be computed. By multiplying permittivity times the nominal thickness of the geotextile, as determined by Test Method D5199, the nominal coefficient of permeability is obtained.
Note 2—The nominal thickness is used as it is difficult to evaluate the pressure on the geotextile during the test, thereby making it difficult to determine the thickness of the fabric under these test conditions.
1.1 These test methods cover procedures for determining the hydraulic conductivity (water permeability) of geotextiles in terms of permittivity under standard testing conditions, in the uncompressed state. Included are two procedures: the constant head method and the falling head method.
1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound units stated in parentheses are provided for information only.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D123 Terminology Relating to Textiles
D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
D4439 Terminology for Geosynthetics
D5199 Test Method for Measuring the Nominal Thickness of Geosynthetics
E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
ICS Number Code 59.080.70 (Geotextiles)