ASTM D4485 - 11c

    Стандартная спецификация на качество эксплуатационных свойств категорий моторных масел Американского института нефти (API) используемых в настоящее время

    Active Standard ASTM D4485 Developed by Subcommittee: D02.B0

    Book of Standards Volume: 05.02


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    Translated Standard(s): English

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    1. Область применения

    1.1 Данная спецификация распространяется на моторные масла для мало- и высокомощных двигателей внутреннего сгорания, эксплуатируемых в различных условиях в автомобилях, тракторах, фургонах, автобусах, внедорожниках, промышленном и строительном оборудовании.

    1.2 Данная спецификация не распространяется на применение моторных масел в подвесных моторах, снегоходах, газонокосилках, мотоциклах, железнодорожных локомотивах или морских судах.

    1.3 Данная спецификация основывается на результатах испытаний моторных масел, которые обычно коррелируют с результатами, получаемыми на эталонных маслах в реальных двигателях, работающих на бензине или дизельном топливе. Поскольку они принадлежат к категории API SL моторных масел, то они основываются на результатах испытаний этих масел, которые в общем случае коррелируют с результатами, получаемыми на эталонных маслах при испытаниях бензиновых двигателей, которые определяли категории моторных масел до 2000 г. Необходимо отметить, что не все характеристики моторных масел могут оцениваться путем испытаний двигателей с помощью данной спецификации. Кроме того, при определении характеристик масел желательно, чтобы они оценивались при реальных условиях эксплуатации.

    1.4 Данная спецификация включает также описание лабораторных и химических испытаний, которые способствуют оценке некоторых аспектов характеристик моторных масел, на которые не распространяются испытания данной спецификации.

    1.5.1 Исключения — Износ вала ролика толкателя в Методе испытаний D 5966 приведен в милях. Некоторые приложения приведены дословно из других источников и в них имеются единицы, отличные от единиц СИ.

    2. Ссылочные документы

    D130 Test Method for Corrosiveness to Copper from Petroleum Products by Copper Strip Test

    D2240 Test Method for Rubber Property--Durometer Hardness

    D2622 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

    D2887 Test Method for Boiling Range Distribution of Petroleum Fractions by Gas Chromatography

    D3244 Practice for Utilization of Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specifications

    D412 Test Methods for Vulcanized Rubber and Thermoplastic Elastomers--Tension

    D4171 Specification for Fuel System Icing Inhibitors

    D4683 Test Method for Measuring Viscosity of New and Used Engine Oils at High Shear Rate and High Temperature by Tapered Bearing Simulator Viscometer at 150 C

    D4684 Test Method for Determination of Yield Stress and Apparent Viscosity of Engine Oils at Low Temperature

    D471 Test Method for Rubber Property--Effect of Liquids

    D4951 Test Method for Determination of Additive Elements in Lubricating Oils by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry

    D5119 Test Method for Evaluation of Automotive Engine Oils in the CRC L-38 Spark-Ignition Engine

    D5133 Test Method for Low Temperature, Low Shear Rate, Viscosity/Temperature Dependence of Lubricating Oils Using a Temperature-Scanning Technique

    D5185 Test Method for Determination of Additive Elements, Wear Metals, and Contaminants in Used Lubricating Oils and Determination of Selected Elements in Base Oils by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES)

    D5293 Test Method for Apparent Viscosity of Engine Oils and Base Stocks Between -5 and -35C Using Cold-Cranking Simulator

    D5302 Test Method for Evaluation of Automotive Engine Oils for Inhibition of Deposit Formation and Wear in a Spark-Ignition Internal Combustion Engine Fueled with Gasoline and Operated Under Low-Temperature, Light-Duty Conditions

    D5480 Test Method for Engine Oil Volatility by Gas Chromatography

    D5481 Test Method for Measuring Apparent Viscosity at High-Temperature and High-Shear Rate by Multicell Capillary Viscometer

    D5533 Test Method for Evaluation of Automotive Engine Oils in the Sequence IIIE, Spark-Ignition Engine

    D5800 Test Method for Evaporation Loss of Lubricating Oils by the Noack Method

    D5844 Test Method for Evaluation of Automotive Engine Oils for Inhibition of Rusting (Sequence IID)

    D5966 Test Method for Evaluation of Engine Oils for Roller Follower Wear in Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    D5967 Test Method for Evaluation of Diesel Engine Oils in T-8 Diesel Engine

    D6082 Test Method for High Temperature Foaming Characteristics of Lubricating Oils

    D6202 Test Method for Automotive Engine Oils on the Fuel Economy of Passenger Cars and Light-Duty Trucks in the Sequence VIA Spark Ignition Engine

    D6278 Test Method for Shear Stability of Polymer Containing Fluids Using a European Diesel Injector Apparatus

    D6335 Test Method for Determination of High Temperature Deposits by Thermo-Oxidation Engine Oil Simulation Test

    D6417 Test Method for Estimation of Engine Oil Volatility by Capillary Gas Chromatography

    D6483 Test Method for Evaluation of Diesel Engine Oils in T-9 Diesel Engine

    D6557 Test Method for Evaluation of Rust Preventive Characteristics of Automotive Engine Oils

    D6593 Test Method for Evaluation of Automotive Engine Oils for Inhibition of Deposit Formation in a Spark-Ignition Internal Combustion Engine Fueled with Gasoline and Operated Under Low-Temperature, Light-Duty Conditions

    D6594 Test Method for Evaluation of Corrosiveness of Diesel Engine Oil at 135C

    D6681 Test Method for Evaluation of Engine Oils in a High Speed, Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine--Caterpillar 1P Test Procedure

    D6709 Test Method for Evaluation of Automotive Engine Oils in the Sequence VIII Spark-Ignition Engine (CLR Oil Test Engine)

    D6750 Test Methods for Evaluation of Engine Oils in a High-Speed, Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine--1K Procedure (0.4 % Fuel Sulfur) and 1N Procedure (0.04 % Fuel Sulfur)

    D6794 Test Method for Measuring the Effect on Filterability of Engine Oils After Treatment with Various Amounts of Water and a Long (6-h) Heating Time

    D6795 Test Method for Measuring the Effect on Filterability of Engine Oils After Treatment with Water and Dry Ice and a Short (30-min) Heating Time

    D6837 Test Method for Measurement of Effects of Automotive Engine Oils on Fuel Economy of Passenger Cars and Light-Duty Trucks in Sequence VIB Spark Ignition Engine

    D6838 Test Method for Cummins M11 High Soot Test

    D6891 Test Method for Evaluation of Automotive Engine Oils in the Sequence IVA Spark-Ignition Engine

    D6894 Test Method for Evaluation of Aeration Resistance of Engine Oils in Direct-Injected Turbocharged Automotive Diesel Engine

    D6896 Test Method for Determination of Yield Stress and Apparent Viscosity of Used Engine Oils at Low Temperature

    D6922 Test Method for Determination of Homogeneity and Miscibility in Automotive Engine Oils

    D6923 Test Method for Evaluation of Engine Oils in a High Speed, Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine--Caterpillar 1R Test Procedure

    D6975 Test Method for Cummins M11 EGR Test

    D6984 Test Method for Evaluation of Automotive Engine Oils in the Sequence IIIF, Spark-Ignition Engine

    D6987/D6987M Test Method for Evaluation of Diesel Engine Oils in T-10 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Diesel Engine

    D7097 Test Method for Determination of Moderately High Temperature Piston Deposits by Thermo-Oxidation Engine Oil Simulation Test--TEOST MHT

    D7109 Test Method for Shear Stability of Polymer Containing Fluids Using a European Diesel Injector Apparatus at 30 and 90 Cycles

    D7156 Test Method for Evaluation of Diesel Engine Oils in the T-11 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Diesel Engine

    D7216 Test Method for Determining Automotive Engine Oil Compatibility with Typical Seal Elastomers

    D7320 Test Method for Evaluation of Automotive Engine Oils in the Sequence IIIG, Spark-Ignition Engine

    D7422 Test Method for Evaluation of Diesel Engine Oils in T-12 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Diesel Engine

    D7468 Test Method for Cummins ISM Test

    D7484 Test Method for Evaluation of Automotive Engine Oils for Valve-Train Wear Performance in Cummins ISB Medium-Duty Diesel Engine

    D7528 Test Method for Bench Oxidation of Engine Oils by ROBO Apparatus

    D7549 Test Method for Evaluation of Heavy-Duty Engine Oils under High Output Conditions--Caterpillar C13 Test Procedure

    D7563 Test Method for Evaluation of the Ability of Engine Oil to Emulsify Water and Simulated Ed85 Fuel

    D7589 Test Method for Measurement of Effects of Automotive Engine Oils on Fuel Economy of Passenger Cars and Light-Duty Trucks in Sequence VID Spark Ignition Engine

    D874 Test Method for Sulfated Ash from Lubricating Oils and Additives

    D892 Test Method for Foaming Characteristics of Lubricating Oils

    D92 Test Method for Flash and Fire Points by Cleveland Open Cup Tester

    D93 Test Methods for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester

    E178 Practice for Dealing With Outlying Observations

    E29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specifications


    Ключевые слова

    автомобильный, моторное масло, категории моторных масел, методы испытаний моторных масел, мощные двигатели, двигатели внутреннего сгорания, маломощные двигатели