ASTM D4437 / D4437M - 16

    Standard Practice for Non-destructive Testing (NDT) for Determining the Integrity of Seams Used in Joining Flexible Polymeric Sheet Geomembranes

    Active Standard ASTM D4437 / D4437M | Developed by Subcommittee: D35.10

    Book of Standards Volume: 04.13


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    Significance and Use

    3.1 The use of geomembranes as barrier materials to restrict liquid migration from one location to another in soil and rock, and the large number of seam methods and types used in joining these geomembrane sheets, has created a need for standard tests by which the various seams can be compared and the quality of the seam systems can be non-destructively evaluated. This practice is intended to meet such a need.

    3.2 The geomembrane sheet material shall be formulated from the appropriate polymers and compounding ingredients to form a plastic or elastomer sheet material that meets all specified requirements for the end use of the product. The sheet material (reinforced or nonreinforced) shall be capable of being bonded to itself by one of the methods described in 1.2 in accordance with the sheet manufacturer's recommendations and instructions.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This practice is intended for use as a summary of nondestructive quality control test methods for determining the integrity of seams used in the joining of flexible sheet materials in a geotechnical application. This practice outlines the test procedures available for determining the quality of bonded seams. Any one or combination of the test methods outlined in this practice can be incorporated into a project specification for quality control. These test methods are applicable to manufactured flexible polymeric membrane linings that are scrim reinforced or nonreinforced. This practice is not applicable to destructive testing. For destructive test methods look at other ASTM Standards and Practices.

    1.2 The types of seams covered by this practice include the following: Thermally Bonded Seams, Hot Air, Hot Wedge (or Knife), Extrusion, Solvent Bonded Seams, Bodied Solvent Bonded Seams, Adhesive Bonded or Cemented Seams, Taped Seams, Waterproofed Sewn Seams.

    1.3 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.

    1.4 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D5641/D5641M Practice for Geomembrane Seam Evaluation by Vacuum Chamber

    D5820 Practice for Pressurized Air Channel Evaluation of Dual Seamed Geomembranes

    D6365 Practice for the Nondestructive Testing of Geomembrane Seams using the Spark Test

    D7006 Practice for Ultrasonic Testing of Geomembranes

    D7177/D7177M Specification for Air Channel Evaluation of Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Dual Track Seamed Geomembranes


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 83.140.10 (Films and sheets); 91.100.50 (Binders. Sealing materials)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 30121701(Geomesh)


    Referencing This Standard
    Link Here
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    DOI: 10.1520/D4437_D4437M-16

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    Citation Format

    ASTM D4437 / D4437M-16, Standard Practice for Non-destructive Testing (NDT) for Determining the Integrity of Seams Used in Joining Flexible Polymeric Sheet Geomembranes, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2016, www.astm.org

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