Active Standard ASTM D4435 | Developed by Subcommittee: D18.12
Book of Standards Volume: 04.08
Historical (view previous versions of standard)
Significance and Use
5.1 Rock bolts are used for support in a variety of mining and civil engineering situations.3 The pull test may be used to provide a quantitative measure of the relative performance of different anchor systems in the same rock type. Anchor systems may be different mechanical anchors or different bond materials or lengths for grouted anchors. Such data can be used to choose an anchor type and determine bolt length, spacing, and size.
5.2 The objective of the method is to measure anchor performance, and not the performance of the rock bolt itself. Thus, to make sure the bolt response during the test is minimal and predictable, high strength, short-length (6 to 8 ft (1.8 to 2.5 m)) bolts have been specified. The bolt should be just long enough to make sure that failure occurs in the anchor system and not from the reaction pad bearing down on the rock mass.
5.3 Ideally, the rock bolt anchor should fail by shear at the anchor-rock interface or bond. Therefore, the local characteristics of the rock, such as roughness and induced fractures, are significant factors in the anchor strength. To obtain realistic strength values, the test holes should be drilled using the same methods as the construction rock bolt holes.
5.4 Rocks with significant time-dependent behavior, such as rock salt or shale, may respond to the anchor system itself and change the anchor strength. In these cases, consideration should be given to testing bolts over a period of time.
5.5 In establishing a testing program, the following factors should be considered:
5.5.1 Anchor pull tests should be conducted in all rock types in which construction bolts will be installed. If the rock is anisotropic, for example, bedded or schistose, the tests should be conducted in various orientations relative to the anisotropy, including those at which the construction bolt may be installed.
5.5.2 In each rock type, at each orientation, and for each anchor system, a sufficient number of tests should be conducted to determine the average bolt capacities within a fixed uncertainty at the 95 % confidence level. The allowable uncertainty band depends on the project and involves such factors as the rock quality, expected project lifetime, and importance of the areas to be bolted. Its determination will require considerable engineering judgment. As a rough guideline, at least 10 to 12 pull tests for a single set of variables have been found necessary to satisfy the statistical requirements.
1.1 The objective of this test method is to measure the working and ultimate capacities of a rock bolt anchor. This method does not measure the entire roof support system. This method also does not include tests for pretensioned bolts or mine roof support system evaluation.
1.2 This test method is applicable to mechanical, cement grout, resin, (epoxy, polyester, and the like), or other similar anchor systems.
1.3 Units—The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. Reporting of test results in units other than inch-pound shall not be regarded as nonconformance with this test method.
1.3.1 The gravitational system of inch-pound units is used when dealing with inch-pound units. In this system, the pound (lbf) represents a unit of force (weight), while the unit for mass is slugs.
1.4 All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026.
1.4.1 The procedures used to specify how data are collected/recorded or calculated, in this standard are regarded as the industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the significant digits that generally should be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the user’s objectives; and it is common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to be commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope of this standard to consider significant digits used in analytical methods for engineering design.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
D3740 Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
D6026 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
ICS Number Code 93.020 (Earth works. Excavations. Foundation construction. Underground works)
UNSPSC Code 31161632(Rock bolt)