Active Standard ASTM D4428 / D4428M | Developed by Subcommittee: D18.09
Book of Standards Volume: 04.08
Historical (view previous versions of standard)
Significance and Use
The seismic crosshole method provides a designer with information pertinent to the seismic wave velocities of the materials in question (1).2 This data may be used as input into static/dynamic analyses, as a means for computing shear modulus, Young’modulus, and Poisson’ratio, or simply for the determination of anomalies that might exist between boreholes.
Fundamental assumptions inherent in the test methods are as follows:
5.2.1 Horizontal layering is assumed.
5.2.2 Snell’laws of refraction will apply. If Snell’laws of refraction are not applied, velocities obtained will be unreliable.
1.1 These test methods are limited to the determination of horizontally traveling compression (P) and shear (S) seismic waves at test sites consisting primarily of soil materials (as opposed to rock). A preferred test method intended for use on critical projects where the highest quality data must be obtained is included. Also included is an optional method intended for use on projects which do not require measurements of a high degree of precision.
1.2 Various applications of the data will be addressed and acceptable interpretation procedures and equipment, such as seismic sources, receivers, and recording systems will be discussed. Other items addressed include borehole spacing, drilling, casing, grouting, deviation surveys, and actual test conduct. Data reduction and interpretation is limited to the identification of various seismic wave types, apparent velocity relation to true velocity, example computations, effective borehole spacing, use of Snell's law of refraction, assumptions, and computer programs.
1.3 It is important to note that more than one acceptable device can be used to generate a high-quality P wave or S wave, or both. Further, several types of commercially available receivers and recording systems can also be used to conduct an acceptable crosshole survey. Consequently, these test methods primarily concern the actual test procedure, data interpretation, and specifications for equipment which will yield uniform test results.
1.4 All recorded and calculated values shall conform to the guide for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D 6026.
1.4.1 The procedures used to specify how data are collected/recorded and calculated in these test methods are regarded as the industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the significant digits that should generally be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the users objectives; and it is common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to be commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope of these test methods to consider significant digits used in analysis methods for engineering design.
1.4.2 Measurements made to more significant digits or better sensitivity than specified in these test methods shall not be regarded a nonconformance with this standard.
1.5 These test methods are written using SI units. Inch-pound units are provided for convenience. The values stated in inch pound units may not be exact equivalents; therefore, they shall be used independently of the SI system. Combining values from the two systems may result in nonconformance with these test methods.
1.5.1 The gravitational system of inch-pound units is used when dealing with inch-pound units. In this system, the pound (lbf) represents a unit of force (weight), while the unit for mass is slugs. The rationalized slug unit is not given, unless dynamic (F = ma) calculations are involved.
1.5.2 It is common practice in the engineering/construction profession to concurrently use pounds to represent both a unit of mass (lbm) and of force (lbf). This implicitly combines two separate systems of units; that is, the absolute system and the gravitational system. It is scientifically undesirable to combine the use of two separate sets of inch-pound units within a single standard. As stated, these test methods include the gravitational system of inch-pound units and do not use or present the slug unit for mass. However, the use of balances or scales recording pounds of mass (lbm) or recording density in lbm/ft3 shall not be regarded as nonconformance with this standard.
This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
D3740 Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
D6026 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
ICS Number Code 93.020 (Earth works. Excavations. Foundation construction. Underground works)