ASTM D4428 / D4428M - 14

    Standard Test Methods for Crosshole Seismic Testing

    Active Standard ASTM D4428 / D4428M | Developed by Subcommittee: D18.09

    Book of Standards Volume: 04.08


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    Significance and Use

    5.1 The seismic crosshole method provides a designer with information pertinent to the seismic wave velocities of the materials in question (1).2 This data may be used as follows:

    5.1.1 For input into static/dynamic analyses;

    5.1.2 For computing shear modulus, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio (provided density is known or assumed);

    5.1.3 For determining Seismic Site Class using the appropriate Building Code; and

    5.1.4 For assessing liquefaction potential.

    5.2 Fundamental assumptions inherent in the test methods are as follows:

    5.2.1 Horizontal layering is assumed.

    5.2.2 Snell’s law of refraction applies to P-waves and S-waves and to the velocities derived from crosshole tests. If Snell’s law of refraction is not considered in the analysis of Crosshole seismic testing data, the report shall so state, and the P-wave and S-wave velocities obtained may be unreliable for certain depth intervals near changes in stratigraphy (2).

    Note 1The quality of the results produced by these test methods is dependent on the competence of the personnel performing it and the suitability of the equipment and facilities. Agencies that meet the criteria of Practice D3740 are generally considered capable of competent and objective testing/sampling/inspection and so forth. Users of these test methods are cautioned that compliance with Practice D3740 does not in itself assure reliable results. Reliable results depend on many factors; Practice D3740 provides a means of evaluating some of those factors.

    1. Scope

    1.1 These test methods are limited to the determination of the velocity of two types of horizontally travelling seismic waves in soil materials; primary compression (P-wave) and secondary shear (S-wave) waves. The standard assumes that the method used to analyze the data obtained is based on first arrival times or interval arrival times over a measured distance.

    1.2 Acceptable interpretation procedures and equipment, such as seismic sources, receivers, and recording systems are discussed. Other items addressed include borehole spacing, drilling, casing, grouting, deviation surveys, and actual test procedures.

    1.3 These test methods are primarily concerned with the actual test procedure, data interpretation, and specifications for equipment which will yield uniform test results.

    1.4 All recorded and calculated values shall conform to the guide for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026.

    1.4.1 The procedures used to specify how data are collected/recorded and calculated in these test methods are regarded as the industry standard. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the user’s objectives. Measurements made to more significant digits or better sensitivity than specified in these test methods shall not be regarded a nonconformance with this standard.

    1.5 Units—The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units [presented in brackets] are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard. Reporting of test results in units other than SI shall not be regarded as nonconformance with this test method.

    1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids

    D3740 Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction

    D6026 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 93.020 (Earth works. Excavations. Foundation construction. Underground works)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code


    DOI: 10.1520/D4428_D4428M

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