ASTM D4378 - 13

    Standard Practice for In-Service Monitoring of Mineral Turbine Oils for Steam, Gas, and Combined Cycle Turbines

    Active Standard ASTM D4378 | Developed by Subcommittee: D02.C0.01

    Book of Standards Volume: 05.02


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    Significance and Use

    3.1 This practice is intended to assist the user, in particular the power-plant operator, to maintain effective lubrication of all parts of the turbine and guard against the onset of problems associated with oil degradation and contamination. The values of the various test parameters mentioned in this practice are purely indicative. In fact, for proper interpretation of the results, many factors, such as type of equipment, operation workload, design of the lubricating oil circuit, and top-up level, should be taken into account.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This practice covers the requirements for the effective monitoring of mineral turbine oils in service in steam and gas turbines, as individual or combined cycle turbines, used for power generation. This practice includes sampling and testing schedules to validate the condition of the lubricant through its life cycle and by ensuring required improvements to bring the present condition of the lubricant within the acceptable targets. This practice is not intended for condition monitoring of lubricants for auxiliary equipment; it is recommended that the appropriate practice be consulted (see Practice D6224).

    1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D92 Test Method for Flash and Fire Points by Cleveland Open Cup Tester

    D130 Test Method for Corrosiveness to Copper from Petroleum Products by Copper Strip Test

    D445 Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity)

    D664 Test Method for Acid Number of Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Titration

    D665 Test Method for Rust-Preventing Characteristics of Inhibited Mineral Oil in the Presence of Water

    D892 Test Method for Foaming Characteristics of Lubricating Oils

    D943 Test Method for Oxidation Characteristics of Inhibited Mineral Oils

    D974 Test Method for Acid and Base Number by Color-Indicator Titration

    D1401 Test Method for Water Separability of Petroleum Oils and Synthetic Fluids

    D1500 Test Method for ASTM Color of Petroleum Products (ASTM Color Scale)

    D2272 Test Method for Oxidation Stability of Steam Turbine Oils by Rotating Pressure Vessel

    D2273 Test Method for Trace Sediment in Lubricating Oils

    D2422 Classification of Industrial Fluid Lubricants by Viscosity System

    D2668 Test Method for 2,6-di-tert-Butyl- p-Cresol and 2,6-di-tert-Butyl Phenol in Electrical Insulating Oil by Infrared Absorption

    D3427 Test Method for Air Release Properties of Petroleum Oils

    D4057 Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    D4898 Test Method for Insoluble Contamination of Hydraulic Fluids by Gravimetric Analysis

    D5185 Test Method for Multielement Determination of Used and Unused Lubricating Oils and Base Oils by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES)

    D6224 Practice for In-Service Monitoring of Lubricating Oil for Auxiliary Power Plant Equipment

    D6304 Test Method for Determination of Water in Petroleum Products, Lubricating Oils, and Additives by Coulometric Karl Fischer Titration

    D6439 Guide for Cleaning, Flushing, and Purification of Steam, Gas, and Hydroelectric Turbine Lubrication Systems

    D6810 Test Method for Measurement of Hindered Phenolic Antioxidant Content in Non-Zinc Turbine Oils by Linear Sweep Voltammetry

    D6971 Test Method for Measurement of Hindered Phenolic and Aromatic Amine Antioxidant Content in Non-zinc Turbine Oils by Linear Sweep Voltammetry

    D7155 Practice for Evaluating Compatibility of Mixtures of Turbine Lubricating Oils

    D7647 Test Method for Automatic Particle Counting of Lubricating and Hydraulic Fluids Using Dilution Techniques to Eliminate the Contribution of Water and Interfering Soft Particles by Light Extinction

    D7669 Guide for Practical Lubricant Condition Data Trend Analysis

    D7720 Guide for Statistically Evaluating Measurand Alarm Limits when Using Oil Analysis to Monitor Equipment and Oil for Fitness and Contamination

    F311 Practice for Processing Aerospace Liquid Samples for Particulate Contamination Analysis Using Membrane Filters

    F312 Test Methods for Microscopical Sizing and Counting Particles from Aerospace Fluids on Membrane Filters

    International Organization for Standardization Standards

    ISO11171 Hydraulic Fluid Power--Calibration of Automatic Particle Counters for Liquids

    ISO11500 Hydraulic Fluid Power--Determination of the Particulate Contamination Level of a Liquid Sample by Automatic Particle Counting Using the Light Extinction, Second Edition, 2008

    ISO4406 Hydraulic fluid power--Fluids--Method for Coding the Level of Contamination by Solid Particles, Second Edition, 1999

    ISO4407 Hydraulic Fluid Power--Fluid Contamination--Determination of Particulate Contamination by Counting Method Using an Optical Microscope, Second Edition, 2002


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 27.040 (Gas and steam turbines. Steam engines); 75.100 (Lubricants, industrial oils and related products)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 15121527(Turbine oil)


    DOI: 10.1520/D4378

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