ASTM D4328 - 08(2013)

    Standard Practice for Calculation of Supersaturation of Barium Sulfate, Strontium Sulfate, and Calcium Sulfate Dihydrate (Gypsum) in Brackish Water, Seawater, and Brines

    Active Standard ASTM D4328 | Developed by Subcommittee: D19.05

    Book of Standards Volume: 11.02


      Format Pages Price  
    PDF 6 $42.00   ADD TO CART
    Hardcopy (shipping and handling) 6 $42.00   ADD TO CART


    Significance and Use

    4.1 This practice covers the mathematical calculation of the supersaturation of three principal sulfate scaling compounds found in industrial operations. Application of this standard practice to the prediction of scale formation in a given system, however, requires experience. The calculations tell the user if a water, or mixture of waters, is in a scaling mode. Whether or not scale will in fact form, how quickly it will form, where it will form, in what quantities, and what composition are subject to factors beyond the scope of this practice. However, based on how supersaturated a given water or mixture of waters is, an objective evaluation of the relative likelihood of scale formation can be made.

    Note 1There are several personal computer (PC) type programs that are both available commercially and publicly that will perform these calculations.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This practice covers the calculation of supersaturation of barium sulfate, strontium sulfate, and calcium sulfate dihydrate (gypsum) in brackish water, seawater, and brines in which barium, strontium, and calcium ions either coexist or exist individually in solution in the presence of sulfate ions.

    1.2 This practice is not applicable for calculating calcium sulfate dihydrate supersaturation if the temperatures of saline waters under investigation exceed 95°C. At temperatures above 95°C, hemianhydrate and anhydrite would be major insoluble forms.

    1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

    1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D511 Test Methods for Calcium and Magnesium In Water

    D512 Test Methods for Chloride Ion In Water

    D513 Test Methods for Total and Dissolved Carbon Dioxide in Water

    D516 Test Method for Sulfate Ion in Water

    D1129 Terminology Relating to Water

    D3352 Test Method for Strontium Ion in Brackish Water, Seawater, and Brines

    D3370 Practices for Sampling Water from Closed Conduits

    D3561 Test Method for Lithium, Potassium, and Sodium Ions in Brackish Water, Seawater, and Brines by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry

    D3651 Test Method for Barium in Brackish Water, Seawater, and Brines

    D3986 Test Method for Barium in Brines, Seawater, and Brackish Water by Direct-Current Argon Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 13.060.30 (Sewage water)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 70171601(Water quality management)


    DOI: 10.1520/D4328

    ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.

    ASTM D4328

    Citing ASTM Standards
    Back to Top