Active Standard ASTM D422 | Developed by Subcommittee: D18.03
Book of Standards Volume: 04.08
Historical (view previous versions of standard)
This test method covers the quantitative determination of the distribution of particle sizes in soils. The distribution of particle sizes larger than 75 micrometers (retained on the No. 200 sieve) is determined by sieving, while the distribution of particle sizes smaller than 75 micrometers is determined by a sedimentation process using a hydrometer. The balances, stirring apparatus, hydrometer, sedimentation cylinder, thermometer, sieves, water bath or constant-temperature room, beaker, and timing device used in the method are specified. Sieve analysis, hydrometer analysis, and hygroscopic moisture analysis shall be performed on the sample soil.
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1.1 This test method covers the quantitative determination of the distribution of particle sizes in soils. The distribution of particle sizes larger than 75 μm (retained on the No. 200 sieve) is determined by sieving, while the distribution of particle sizes smaller than 75 μm is determined by a sedimentation process, using a hydrometer to secure the necessary data (Note 1 and Note 2).Note 1
Separation may be made on the No. 4 (4.75 μm), No. 40 (425 μm), or No. 200 (75 μm) sieve instead of the No. 10. For whatever sieve used, the size shall be indicated in the report.Note 2
Two types of dispersion devices are provided: (1) a high-speed mechanical stirrer, and (2) air dispersion. Extensive investigations indicate that air-dispersion devices produce a more positive dispersion of plastic soils below the 20-m size and appreciably less degradation on all sizes when used with sandy soils. Because of the definite advantages favoring air dispersion, its use is recommended. The results from the two types of devices differ in magnitude, depending upon soil type, leading to marked differences in particle size distribution, especially for sizes finer than 20 m.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D421 Practice for Dry Preparation of Soil Samples for Particle-Size Analysis and Determination of Soil Constants
E11 Specification for Woven Wire Test Sieve Cloth and Test Sieves
E100 Specification for ASTM Hydrometers
ICS Number Code 91.100.30 (Concrete and concrete products)