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Significance and Use
5.1 The performance of RO or NF membranes is strongly influenced by the composition of the feed solution. Overall salt rejection is dependent upon the ratio of monovalent to polyvalent ions as well as the sum total of ions present. The permeate flow rate of RO or NF devices is also dependent upon the sum total of the ions present and the operating temperature, pressure, and recovery rate. Analyses and measurements performed in this guide will provide vital data for salt rejection and permeate flow projections of RO or NF systems for specific feedwaters.
5.2 The recovery at which a RO or NF system can be safely operated is dependent upon the composition of the feed solution. The analyses and measurements performed in this guide will provide data for the calculation of the maximum recovery of a RO or NF system for a given feed solution.
5.3 The analyses and measurements performed in this guide will be of great assistance in determining the pretreatment requirements for a RO or NF system on a given feedwater.
1.1 This guide covers the analyses that should be performed on any given water sample if reverse osmosis (RO) or nanofiltration (NF) application is being considered.
1.2 This guide is applicable to waters including brackish waters and seawaters but is not necessarily applicable to waste waters.
1.3 This is a guide only and should not be construed as a delineation of all ions known to exist in waters.
1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D511 Test Methods for Calcium and Magnesium In Water
D512 Test Methods for Chloride Ion In Water
D513 Test Methods for Total and Dissolved Carbon Dioxide in Water
D516 Test Method for Sulfate Ion in Water
D857 Test Method for Aluminum in Water
D858 Test Methods for Manganese in Water
D859 Test Method for Silica in Water
D888 Test Methods for Dissolved Oxygen in Water
D1068 Test Methods for Iron in Water
D1129 Terminology Relating to Water
D1179 Test Methods for Fluoride Ion in Water
D1253 Test Method for Residual Chlorine in Water
D1293 Test Methods for pH of Water
D1889 Test Method for Turbidity of Water
D2579 Test Method for Total Organic Carbon in Water
D3352 Test Method for Strontium Ion in Brackish Water, Seawater, and Brines
D3370 Practices for Sampling Water from Closed Conduits
D3561 Test Method for Lithium, Potassium, and Sodium Ions in Brackish Water, Seawater, and Brines by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry
D3867 Test Methods for Nitrite-Nitrate in Water
D4189 Test Method for Silt Density Index (SDI) of Water
D4194 Test Methods for Operating Characteristics of Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration Devices
D4382 Test Method for Barium in Water, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry, Graphite Furnace
D6161 Terminology Used for Microfiltration, Ultrafiltration, Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis Membrane Processes
APHA StandardsAPHA Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, Sixteenth Edition, 1985, pp. 470-478, Part 427, Sulfite
ICS Number Code 13.060.50 (Examination of water for chemical substances)