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Significance and Use
Proper fluid condition is essential for the satisfactory performance and long life of the equipment. Prerequisites for proper lubrication and component performance are: (1) a well-designed hydraulic system, (2) the use of a good fluid, and (3) a maintenance program including proper filtration methods to ensure that the fluid is free of contaminants. These prerequisites are meaningless unless the hydraulic system is initially cleaned to a level that will prevent component damage on initial start up or when debris may be dislodged by any system upset.
The cleaning and flushing of both new and used systems are accomplished by essentially the same procedure. In new systems, the emphasis is on the removal of contaminants introduced during the manufacture, storage, field fabrication, and installation. In used systems, the emphasis is on the removal of contaminants that are generated during operations, from failures that occur during operation; or contaminants introduced during overhaul.
While the flushing and cleaning philosophies stated in this practice are applicable to all primary and servo hydraulic systems, the equipment specified herein does not apply to compact systems that use relatively small volumes of fluid unless they are servo systems where it is economically justified.
It should be emphasized that the established procedures to be followed for flushing and cleaning the hydraulic systems should be accomplished through the cooperative efforts and agreement of the equipment manufacturer, the installer, the operator, and the fluid supplier. No phase of these procedures should be undertaken without a thorough understanding of the possible effects of improper system preparation. The installation and cleaning and flushing of the equipment should not be entrusted to persons lacking in experience.
1.1 This practice covers aid for the equipment manufacturer, the installer, the oil supplier and the operator in coordinating their efforts towards obtaining and maintaining clean petroleum fluid hydraulic systems. Of necessity, this practice is generalized due to variations in the type of equipment, builder's practices, and operating conditions. Constant vigilance is required throughout all phases of design, fabrication, installation, flushing, testing, and operation of hydraulic systems to minimize and reduce the presence of contaminants and to obtain optimum system reliability.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D445 Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity)
D664 Test Method for Acid Number of Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Titration
D974 Test Method for Acid and Base Number by Color-Indicator Titration
D1774 Test Method for Elastic Properties of Textile Fibers
D2709 Test Method for Water and Sediment in Middle Distillate Fuels by Centrifuge
D4006 Test Method for Water in Crude Oil by Distillation
F311 Practice for Processing Aerospace Liquid Samples for Particulate Contamination Analysis Using Membrane Filters
F312 Test Methods for Microscopical Sizing and Counting Particles from Aerospace Fluids on Membrane Filters
F313 Test Method for Insoluble Contamination of Hydraulic Fluids by Gravimetric Analysis
ANSI StandardsB93.19 Method for Extracting Fluid Samples from the Lines of an Operating Hydraulic Fluid Power System (for Particulate Contamination Analysis)
ICS Number Code 23.100.01 (Fluid power systems in general)