ASTM D4174 - 15

    Standard Practice for Cleaning, Flushing, and Purification of Petroleum Fluid Hydraulic Systems

    Active Standard ASTM D4174 | Developed by Subcommittee: D02.N0.02

    Book of Standards Volume: 05.02


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    Significance and Use

    4.1 Proper fluid condition is essential for the satisfactory performance and long life of the equipment. Prerequisites for proper lubrication and component performance are: (1) a well-designed hydraulic system, (2) the use of a suitable fluid, and (3) a maintenance program including proper filtration methods to ensure that the fluid is free of contaminants. These prerequisites are meaningless unless the hydraulic system is initially cleaned to a level that will prevent component damage on initial start up or when debris may be dislodged by any system upset.

    4.2 The cleaning and flushing of both new and used systems are accomplished by essentially the same procedure. In new systems, the emphasis is on the removal of contaminants introduced during the manufacture, storage, field fabrication, and installation. In used systems, the emphasis is on the removal of contaminants that are generated during operations, from failures that occur during operation; or contaminants introduced during overhaul. Both new and used systems may benefit from high velocity flushing to remove materials that can collect in hard to drain pockets or normally non-wetted surfaces.

    4.3 While the flushing and cleaning philosophies stated in this practice are applicable to all primary and servo hydraulic systems, the equipment specified herein does not apply to compact systems that use relatively small volumes of fluid unless they are servo systems where it is economically justified.

    4.4 It should be emphasized that the established procedures to be followed for flushing and cleaning the hydraulic systems should be accomplished through the cooperative efforts and agreement of the equipment manufacturer, the installer, the flushing service vendor, the operator, and the fluid supplier. No phase of these procedures should be undertaken without a thorough understanding of the possible effects of improper system preparation. The installation and cleaning and flushing of the equipment should not be entrusted to persons lacking in experience.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This practice covers aid for the equipment manufacturer, the installer, the oil supplier and the operator in coordinating their efforts towards obtaining and maintaining clean petroleum fluid hydraulic systems. Of necessity, this practice is generalized due to variations in the type of equipment, builder's practices, and operating conditions. Constant vigilance is required throughout all phases of design, fabrication, installation, flushing, testing, and operation of hydraulic systems to minimize and reduce the presence of contaminants and to obtain optimum system reliability.

    1.2 This practice is presented in the following sequence:

     

    Section

    Scope

    1

    Referenced Documents

    2

    Terminology

    3

    Significance and Use

    4

    Types of Contamination

    5

    General

    5.1

    Water

    5.2

    Soluble Contaminants

    5.3

    Insoluble Contaminants

    5.4

    Lodged Contamination

    5.4.2.1

    Suspended or Loose Contamination

    5.4.2.2

    Contamination Control

    6

    General

    6.1

    Initial Filling

    6.1.1

    In-Service Units

    6.1.2

    Connection of Contamination Control System

    6.1.3

    Piping or Tubing Contamination Control System

    6.1.4

    Contamination Control Procedures

    6.2

    Full Flow Contamination Control

    6.2.1

    Bypass Contamination Control

    6.2.2

    Batch Contamination Control

    6.2.3

    Contamination Control Processes

    6.3

    Gravity

    6.3.1

    Mechanical

    6.3.2

    Centrifuge

    6.3.2.1

    Filters

    6.3.2.2

    Supplementary Methods

    6.3.3

    Limitations of Contamination Control Devices

    6.3.4

    Storage

    7

    General

    7.1

    Inspection

    8

    General

    8.1

    System Components

    8.2

    Valves, Strainers, and Coolers

    8.2.1

    Sumps and Tanks

    8.2.2

    Control Devices

    8.2.3

    Pumps

    8.2.4

    Flushing Program

    9

    General

    9.1

    Preparation of System for Flushing

    9.2

    Fluid Heating Prior to Flushing

    9.3

    Selection of Flushing Oils

    9.4

    System Operation Fluid

    9.4.1

    Special Flushing Oil

    9.4.2

    Flushing Oil Selection Guide

    9.4.3

    Flushing Procedure for New Systems

    9.5

    Flushing Oil Charge

    9.5.1

    Cleaning of Filtration Devices

    9.5.2

    Cleaning of System Components

    9.5.3

    System Flushing and Flush Acceptance Criteria

    9.5.4

    Draining of Flushing Oil

    9.5.5

    Displacement Oil

    9.5.6

    Interim Corrosion Protection

    9.5.7

    New Fluid Charge

    9.5.8

    Flushing of Used Systems

    9.6

    General Guidelines

    9.6.1

    Procedure

    9.6.2

    System Maintenance

    10

    Preinstallation

    10.2

    In-Service Units

    10.3

    Decision to Flush In-Service Hydraulic Systems

    10.4

    Fluid Condition Monitoring

    11

    Fluid Sampling Techniques

    11.2

    Visual Inspection

    11.3

    Laboratory Analysis

    11.4

    Fluid Cleanliness Criteria

    11.5

    General Information

    12

    Centrifuge Ratings

    12.2

    Coalescence

    12.3

    Vacuum Dehydration

    12.4

    Adsorption

    12.5

    1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.

    1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D445 Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity)

    D664 Test Method for Acid Number of Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Titration

    D974 Test Method for Acid and Base Number by Color-Indicator Titration

    D1774 Test Method for Elastic Properties of Textile Fibers

    D2709 Test Method for Water and Sediment in Middle Distillate Fuels by Centrifuge

    D4006 Test Method for Water in Crude Oil by Distillation

    F311 Practice for Processing Aerospace Liquid Samples for Particulate Contamination Analysis Using Membrane Filters

    F312 Test Methods for Microscopical Sizing and Counting Particles from Aerospace Fluids on Membrane Filters

    F313 Test Method for Insoluble Contamination of Hydraulic Fluids by Gravimetric Analysis

    ANSI Standards

    B93.19 Method for Extracting Fluid Samples from the Lines of an Operating Hydraulic Fluid Power System (for Particulate Contamination Analysis)


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 23.100.01 (Fluid power systems in general)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code


    Referencing This Standard

    DOI: 10.1520/D4174-15

    ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.

    Citation Format

    ASTM D4174-15, Standard Practice for Cleaning, Flushing, and Purification of Petroleum Fluid Hydraulic Systems, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2015, www.astm.org

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