ASTM D4104 - 96(2010)e1

    Standard Test Method (Analytical Procedure) for Determining Transmissivity of Nonleaky Confined Aquifers by Overdamped Well Response to Instantaneous Change in Head (Slug Tests)

    Active Standard ASTM D4104 | Developed by Subcommittee: D18.21

    Book of Standards Volume: 04.08


      Format Pages Price  
    PDF 4 $37.00   ADD TO CART
    Hardcopy (shipping and handling) 4 $37.00   ADD TO CART


    Significance and Use

    Assumptions of Solution of Cooper et al (1):

    The head change in the control well is instantaneous at time t = 0.

    Well is of finite diameter and fully penetrates the aquifer.

    Flow in the nonleaky aquifer is radial.

    Implications of Assumptions:

    The mathematical equations applied ignore inertial effects and assume the water level returns the static level in an approximate exponential manner. The geometric configuration of the well and aquifer are shown in Fig. 1.

    Assumptions are applicable to artesian or confined conditions and fully penetrating wells. However, this test method is commonly applied to partially penetrating wells and in unconfined aquifers where it may provide estimates of hydraulic conductivity for the aquifer interval adjacent to the open interval of the well if the horizontal hydraulic conductivity is significantly greater than the vertical hydraulic conductivity.

    As pointed out by Cooper et al (1) the determination of storage coefficient by this test method has questionable reliability because of the similar shape of the curves, whereas, the determination of transmissivity is not as sensitive to choosing the correct curve. However, the curve selected should not imply a storage coefficient unrealistically large or small.


    FIG. 1 Cross Section Through a Well in Which a Slug of Water is Suddenly Injected

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of transmissivity from the measurement of force-free (overdamped) response of a well-aquifer system to a sudden change of water level in a well. Force-free response of water level in a well to a sudden change in water level is characterized by recovery to initial water level in an approximate exponential manner with negligible inertial effects.

    1.2 The analytical procedure in this test method is used in conjunction with the field procedure in Test Method D4044 for collection of test data.

    1.3 LimitationsSlug tests are considered to provide an estimate of transmissivity. Although the assumptions of this test method prescribe a fully penetrating well (a well open through the full thickness of the aquifer), the slug test method is commonly conducted using a partially penetrating well. Such a practice may be acceptable for application under conditions in which the aquifer is stratified and horizontal hydraulic conductivity is much greater than vertical hydraulic conductivity. In such a case the test would be considered to be representative of the average hydraulic conductivity of the portion of the aquifer adjacent to the open interval of the well.

    1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

    1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids

    D4043 Guide for Selection of Aquifer Test Method in Determining Hydraulic Properties by Well Techniques

    D4044 Test Method for (Field Procedure) for Instantaneous Change in Head (Slug) Tests for Determining Hydraulic Properties of Aquifers

    D4750 Test Method for Determining Subsurface Liquid Levels in a Borehole or Monitoring Well (Observation Well)

    D5912 Test Method for (Analytical Procedure) Determining Hydraulic Conductivity of an Unconfined Aquifer by Overdamped Well Response to Instantaneous Change in Head (Slug)


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 13.060.10 (Water of natural resources)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code


    DOI: 10.1520/D4104-96R10E01

    ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.

    ASTM D4104

    Citing ASTM Standards
    Back to Top