Significance and Use
Representative samples of petroleum and petroleum products are required for the determination of chemical and physical properties, which are used to establish standard volumes, prices, and compliance with commercial and regulatory specifications.
The following concepts must be considered when selecting a specific sampling procedure.
Objective of Manual Sampling:
The objective of manual sampling is to obtain a small portion (spot sample) of material from a selected area within a container that is representative of the material in the area or, in the case of running or all-level samples, a sample whose composition is representative of the total material in the container. A series of spot samples may be combined to create a representative sample.
Required Conditions for the Application of Manual Sampling:
Manual sampling may be applied under all conditions within the scope of this practice, provided that the proper sampling procedures are followed.
In many liquid manual sampling applications, the material to be sampled contains a heavy component (such as free water) which tends to separate from the main component. In these cases, manual sampling is appropriate under the following conditions.
(1) Sufficient time must have elapsed for the heavy component to adequately separate and settle.
(2) It must be possible to measure the level of the settled component in order to stay well above that level when drawing representative samples, unless all or part of the heavy component will be included in the portion of the tank contents to be identified.
(3) When one or more of these conditions cannot be met, sampling is recommended and is accomplished by means of an automatic sampling system (see Practice D4177 (API MPMS Chapter 8.2)).
1.1 This practice covers procedures for manually obtaining representative samples of petroleum products of a liquid, semi-liquid, or solid state whose vapor pressure at ambient conditions is below 101 kPa (14.7 psia). If sampling is for the precise determination of volatility, use Practice D5842 (API MPMS Chapter 8.4) in conjunction with this practice. For sample mixing and handling of samples, refer to Practice D5854 (API MPMS Chapter 8.3). The practice does not cover sampling of electrical insulating oils and hydraulic fluids.
Note 1—The procedures described in this practice may also be applicable in sampling most noncorrosive liquid industrial chemicals, provided that all safety precautions specific to these chemicals are strictly followed.
Note 2—The procedure for sampling liquefied petroleum gases is described in Practice D1265; the procedure for sampling fluid power hydraulic fluids is covered in ANSI B93.19 and B93.44; the procedure for sampling insulating oils is described in Practice D923; and the procedure for sampling natural gas is described in Test Method .
Note 3—The procedure for special fuel samples for trace metal analysis is described in an appendix to Specification D2880.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D86 Test Method for Distillation of Petroleum Products at Atmospheric Pressure
D217 Test Methods for Cone Penetration of Lubricating Grease
D244 Test Methods and Practices for Emulsified Asphalts
D268 Guide for Sampling and Testing Volatile Solvents and Chemical Intermediates for Use in Paint and Related Coatings and Material
D346 Practice for Collection and Preparation of Coke Samples for Laboratory Analysis
D525 Test Method for Oxidation Stability of Gasoline (Induction Period Method)
D873 Test Method for Oxidation Stability of Aviation Fuels (Potential Residue Method)
D923 Practices for Sampling Electrical Insulating Liquids
D977 Specification for Emulsified Asphalt
D1145 Test Method for Sampling Natural Gas
D1265 Practice for Sampling Liquefied Petroleum (LP) Gases, Manual Method
D1856 Test Method for Recovery of Asphalt From Solution by Abson Method
D2172 Test Methods for Quantitative Extraction of Bitumen From Bituminous Paving Mixtures
D2880 Specification for Gas Turbine Fuel Oils
D4177 Practice for Automatic Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products (API MPMS Chapter 8.2)
D4306 Practice for Aviation Fuel Sample Containers for Tests Affected by Trace Contamination
D4865 Guide for Generation and Dissipation of Static Electricity in Petroleum Fuel Systems
D5842 Practice for Sampling and Handling of Fuels for Volatility Measurement (API MPMS Chapter 8.4)
D5854 Practice for Mixing and Handling of Liquid Samples of Petroleum and Petroleum Products (API MPMS Chapter 8.3)
American National Standards
B93.44 Method for Extracting Fluid Samples from the Reservoir of an Operating Hydraulic Fluid Power System
MPMSChapter18.1 Measurement Procedures for Crude Oil Gathered from Small Tanks By Truck
boring sampling; bottle/beaker sampling; core thief spot sampling; dipper sampling; extended tube sampling; grab sampling; grease sampling; marine custody transfer; sample containers; sample handling; sample labeling; sample mixing; sample shipment; sampling; sampling cage; static sampling; stand pipes; tap sampling; tube sampling;
ICS Number Code 75.080 (Petroleum products in general); 75.100 (Lubricants, industrial oils and related products)
ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.
Citing ASTM Standards
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