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Significance and Use
4.1 Samples of petroleum and petroleum products are obtained for many reasons, including the determination of chemical and physical properties. These properties may be used for: calculating standard volumes; establishing product value; and often safety and regulatory reporting.
4.2 There are inherent limitations when performing any type of sampling, any one of which may affect the representative nature of the sample. As examples, a spot sample provides a sample from only one particular point in the tank, vessel compartment, or pipeline. In the case of running or all-level samples, the sample only represents the column of material from which it was taken.
4.3 Based on the product, and testing to be performed, this practice provides guidance on sampling equipment, container preparation, and manual sampling procedures for petroleum and petroleum products of a liquid, semi-liquid, or solid state, from the storage tanks, flowlines, pipelines, marine vessels, process vessels, drums, cans, tubes, bags, kettles, and open discharge streams into the primary sample container.
1.1 This practice covers procedures and equipment for manually obtaining samples of liquid petroleum and petroleum products, crude oils, and intermediate products from the sample point into the primary container are described. Procedures are also included for the sampling of free water and other heavy components associated with petroleum and petroleum products.
1.2 This practice also addresses the sampling of semi-liquid or solid-state petroleum products.
1.3 This practice provides additional specific information about sample container selection, preparation, and sample handling.
1.4 This practice does not cover sampling of electrical insulating oils and hydraulic fluids. If sampling is for the precise determination of volatility, use Practice D5842 (API MPMS Chapter 8.4) in conjunction with this practice. For sample mixing and handling, refer to Practice D5854 (API MPMS Chapter 8.3).
1.5 The procedures described in this practice may also be applicable in sampling most non-corrosive liquid industrial chemicals provided that all safety precautions specific to these chemicals are followed. Also, refer to Practice E300. The procedures described in this practice are also applicable to sampling liquefied petroleum gases and chemicals. Also refer to Practices D1265 and D3700. The procedure for sampling bituminous materials is described in Practice D140. Practice D4306 provides guidance on sample containers and preparation for sampling aviation fuel.
1.6 Units—The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. USC units are reflected in parentheses.
1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D86 Test Method for Distillation of Petroleum Products at Atmospheric Pressure
D97 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products
D140 Practice for Sampling Bituminous Materials
D217 Test Methods for Cone Penetration of Lubricating Grease
D244 Test Methods and Practices for Emulsified Asphalts
D268 Guide for Sampling and Testing Volatile Solvents and Chemical Intermediates for Use in Paint and Related Coatings and Material
D287 Test Method for API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Petroleum Products (Hydrometer Method)
D323 Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Reid Method)
D346 Practice for Collection and Preparation of Coke Samples for Laboratory Analysis
D445 Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity)
D473 Test Method for Sediment in Crude Oils and Fuel Oils by the Extraction Method (API MPMS Chapter 10.1)
D664 Test Method for Acid Number of Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Titration
D977 Specification for Emulsified Asphalt
D1265 Practice for Sampling Liquefied Petroleum (LP) Gases, Manual Method
D1267 Test Method for Gage Vapor Pressure of Liquefied Petroleum (LP) Gases (LP-Gas Method)
D1298 Test Method for Density, Relative Density, or API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Liquid Petroleum Products by Hydrometer Method (API MPMS Chapter 9.1)
D1657 Test Method for Density or Relative Density of Light Hydrocarbons by Pressure Hydrometer (API MPMS Chapter 9.2)
D1838 Test Method for Copper Strip Corrosion by Liquefied Petroleum (LP) Gases
D1856 Test Method for Recovery of Asphalt From Solution by Abson Method
D2172 Test Methods for Quantitative Extraction of Bitumen From Bituminous Paving Mixtures
D2622 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
D3230 Test Method for Salts in Crude Oil (Electrometric Method)
D3700 Practice for Obtaining LPG Samples Using a Floating Piston Cylinder
D4006 Test Method for Water in Crude Oil by Distillation (API MPMS Chapter 10.2)
D4007 Test Method for Water and Sediment in Crude Oil by the Centrifuge Method (Laboratory Procedure) (API MPMS Chapter 10.3)
D4177 Practice for Automatic Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products (API MPMS Chapter 8.2)
D4294 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum and Petroleum Products by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
D4306 Practice for Aviation Fuel Sample Containers for Tests Affected by Trace Contamination
D4377 Test Method for Water in Crude Oils by Potentiometric Karl Fischer Titration (API MPMS Chapter 10.7)
D4530 Test Method for Determination of Carbon Residue (Micro Method)
D4629 Test Method for Trace Nitrogen in Liquid Petroleum Hydrocarbons by Syringe/Inlet Oxidative Combustion and Chemiluminescence Detection
D4807 Test Method for Sediment in Crude Oil by Membrane Filtration (API MPMS Chapter 10.8)
D4840 Guide for Sample Chain-of-Custody Procedures
D4928 Test Method for Water in Crude Oils by Coulometric Karl Fischer Titration (API MPMS Chapter 10.9)
D4929 Test Methods for Determination of Organic Chloride Content in Crude Oil
D5002 Test Method for Density and Relative Density of Crude Oils by Digital Density Analyzer
D5191 Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Mini Method)
D5762 Test Method for Nitrogen in Petroleum and Petroleum Products by Boat-Inlet Chemiluminescence
D5842 Practice for Sampling and Handling of Fuels for Volatility Measurement (API MPMS Chapter 8.4)
D5853 Test Method for Pour Point of Crude Oils
D5854 Practice for Mixing and Handling of Liquid Samples of Petroleum and Petroleum Products (API MPMS Chapter 8.3)
D5863 Test Methods for Determination of Nickel, Vanadium, Iron, and Sodium in Crude Oils and Residual Fuels by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
D6299 Practice for Applying Statistical Quality Assurance and Control Charting Techniques to Evaluate Analytical Measurement System Performance
D6377 Test Method for Determination of Vapor Pressure of Crude Oil: VPCRx (Expansion Method)
D6470 Test Method for Salt in Crude Oils (Potentiometric Method)
D6560 Test Method for Determination of Asphaltenes (Heptane Insolubles) in Crude Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D6822 Test Method for Density, Relative Density, and API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Liquid Petroleum Products by Thermohydrometer Method (API MPMS Chapter 9.3)
D6849 Practice for Storage and Use of Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) in Sample Cylinders for LPG Test Methods
D7169 Test Method for Boiling Point Distribution of Samples with Residues Such as Crude Oils and Atmospheric and Vacuum Residues by High Temperature Gas Chromatography
E300 Practice for Sampling Industrial Chemicals
E882 Guide for Accountability and Quality Control in the Chemical Analysis Laboratory
ICS Number Code 75.080 (Petroleum products in general); 75.100 (Lubricants, industrial oils and related products)
UNSPSC Code 15101500(Petroleum and distillates)