Active Standard ASTM D4056 | Developed by Subcommittee: D02.L0.07
Book of Standards Volume: 05.02
Historical (view previous versions of standard)
Significance and Use
Knowledge of the water content is important in lubrication, as large amounts of water can cause corrosion fatigue in steel bearings, and the complete absence of water can cause metal scuffing.
High water content has an accelerating effect on oxidation of lubricants, and can also contribute to foaming, especially at high altitude or temperature, or both.
1.1 This test method covers a procedure for estimating the equilibrium solubility of water and its vapor in hydrocarbon and aliphatic ester lubricants, at temperatures between 277 and 373 K. The test method is limited to liquids of low to moderate polarity and hydrogen bonding, with predicted solubilities not over 1000 ppm by weight in hydrocarbons, or 30 000 ppm by weight in oxygenated compounds, at 298 K.
1.2 Specifically excluded are olefins, nitriles, nitro compounds, and alcohols.
1.3 This test method is recommended only for liquids not containing widely different chemical species. This excludes blends of esters with hydrocarbons, and lubricants containing detergents, dispersants, rust preventives, or load carrying additives.
1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D94 Test Methods for Saponification Number of Petroleum Products
D1218 Test Method for Refractive Index and Refractive Dispersion of Hydrocarbon Liquids
D1298 Test Method for Density, Relative Density (Specific Gravity), or API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Liquid Petroleum Products by Hydrometer Method
D2502 Test Method for Estimation of Mean Relative Molecular Mass of Petroleum Oils from Viscosity Measurements
D3238 Test Method for Calculation of Carbon Distribution and Structural Group Analysis of Petroleum Oils by the n-d-M Method
ICS Number Code 75.100 (Lubricants, industrial oils and related products)