Significance and Use
The intent of this document is to streamline the approval process. The objective is to permit a new fuel or additive to be evaluated and transitioned into field use in a cost effective and timely manner.
Its purpose is to guide the sponsor of a new fuel or new fuel additive through a clearly defined approval process that includes the prerequisite testing and required interactions with the engine and airframe manufacturers; standards organizations; and airworthiness agencies such as the FAA and EASA. This practice provides a basis for calculating the volume of additive or fuel required for assessment, insight into the cost associated with taking a new fuel or new fuel additive through the approval process, and a clear path forward for introducing a new technology for the benefit of the aviation community.
1.1 This practice covers and provides a framework for the qualification and approval of new fuels and new fuel additives for use in commercial and military aviation gas turbine engines. The practice was developed as a guide by the aviation gas-turbine engine Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) with ASTM International member support. The OEMs are solely responsible for approval of a fuel or additive in their respective engines and airframes. For the purpose of this guide, “approval” means “permission to use;” it is not an endorsement of any kind. Standards organizations such as ASTM International (Subcommittee D02.J0), United Kingdom Ministry of Defence, and the U.S. military list only those fuels and additives that are mutually acceptable to all OEMs. ASTM International and OEM participation in the evaluation or approval procedure does not constitute an endorsement of the fuel or additive.
1.2 The OEMs will consider a new fuel or additive based on an established need or benefit attributed to its use. Upon OEM and regulatory authority approval, the fuel or fuel additive may be listed in fuel specifications such as Pratt & Whitney (P&W) Service Bulletin No. 2016; General Electric Aviation (GE) Specification No. D50TF2; and Rolls Royce (RR) engine manuals. Subsequent to OEM approval and industry (ASTM) review and ballot, the fuel or fuel additive may be listed in fuel specifications such as Specification D1655, Defence Standard 91-91, United States Air Force MIL-DTL-83133, and the United States Navy MIL-DTL-5624. This qualification and approval process has been coordinated with airworthiness and certification groups within each company, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA).
1.3 Units of measure throughout this practice are stated in International System of Units (SI) unless the test method specifies non-SI units.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
A240/A240M Specification for Chromium and Chromium-Nickel Stainless Steel Plate, Sheet, and Strip for Pressure Vessels and for General Applications
B36/B36M Specification for Brass Plate, Sheet, Strip, And Rolled Bar
B93/B93M Specification for Magnesium Alloys in Ingot Form for Sand Castings, Permanent Mold Castings, and Die Castings
D56 Test Method for Flash Point by Tag Closed Cup Tester
D86 Test Method for Distillation of Petroleum Products at Atmospheric Pressure
D257 Test Methods for DC Resistance or Conductance of Insulating Materials
D395 Test Methods for Rubber Property--Compression Set
D412 Test Methods for Vulcanized Rubber and Thermoplastic Elastomers--Tension
D445 Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity)
D471 Test Method for Rubber Property--Effect of Liquids
D790 Test Methods for Flexural Properties of Unreinforced and Reinforced Plastics and Electrical Insulating Materials
D924 Test Method for Dissipation Factor (or Power Factor) and Relative Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of Electrical Insulating Liquids
D1002 Test Method for Apparent Shear Strength of Single-Lap-Joint Adhesively Bonded Metal Specimens by Tension Loading (Metal-to-Metal)
D1319 Test Method for Hydrocarbon Types in Liquid Petroleum Products by Fluorescent Indicator Adsorption
D1331 Test Methods for Surface and Interfacial Tension of Solutions of Surface-Active Agents
D1414 Test Methods for Rubber O-Rings
D1655 Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels
D2240 Test Method for Rubber Property--Durometer Hardness
D2386 Test Method for Freezing Point of Aviation Fuels
D2425 Test Method for Hydrocarbon Types in Middle Distillates by Mass Spectrometry
D2624 Test Methods for Electrical Conductivity of Aviation and Distillate Fuels
D2717 Test Method for Thermal Conductivity of Liquids
D2887 Test Method for Boiling Range Distribution of Petroleum Fractions by Gas Chromatography
D3241 Test Method for Thermal Oxidation Stability of Aviation Turbine Fuels
D3359 Test Methods for Measuring Adhesion by Tape Test
D3363 Test Method for Film Hardness by Pencil Test
D3701 Test Method for Hydrogen Content of Aviation Turbine Fuels by Low Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometry
D3703 Test Method for Hydroperoxide Number of Aviation Turbine Fuels, Gasoline and Diesel Fuels
D3828 Test Methods for Flash Point by Small Scale Closed Cup Tester
D3948 Test Method for Determining Water Separation Characteristics of Aviation Turbine Fuels by Portable Separometer
D4052 Test Method for Density, Relative Density, and API Gravity of Liquids by Digital Density Meter
D4066 Classification System for Nylon Injection and Extrusion Materials (PA)
D4629 Test Method for Trace Nitrogen in Liquid Petroleum Hydrocarbons by Syringe/Inlet Oxidative Combustion and Chemiluminescence Detection
D5001 Test Method for Measurement of Lubricity of Aviation Turbine Fuels by the Ball-on-Cylinder Lubricity Evaluator (BOCLE)
D5291 Test Methods for Instrumental Determination of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen in Petroleum Products and Lubricants
D5304 Test Method for Assessing Middle Distillate Fuel Storage Stability by Oxygen Overpressure
D5363 Specification for Anaerobic Single-Component Adhesives (AN)
D5972 Test Method for Freezing Point of Aviation Fuels (Automatic Phase Transition Method)
D6304 Test Method for Determination of Water in Petroleum Products, Lubricating Oils, and Additives by Coulometric Karl Fischer Titration
D6378 Test Method for Determination of Vapor Pressure (VPX) of Petroleum Products, Hydrocarbons, and Hydrocarbon-Oxygenate Mixtures (Triple Expansion Method)
D6379 Test Method for Determination of Aromatic Hydrocarbon Types in Aviation Fuels and Petroleum Distillates--High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method with Refractive Index Detection
D6732 Test Method for Determination of Copper in Jet Fuels by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
D6793 Test Method for Determination of Isothermal Secant and Tangent Bulk Modulus
D7111 Test Method for Determination of Trace Elements in Middle Distillate Fuels by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES)
E411 Test Method for Trace Quantities of Carbonyl Compounds with 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine
E659 Test Method for Autoignition Temperature of Liquid Chemicals
E681 Test Method for Concentration Limits of Flammability of Chemicals (Vapors and Gases)
E1269 Test Method for Determining Specific Heat Capacity by Differential Scanning Calorimetry
FED-STD-791 Testing Method of Lubricants, Liquid Fuels, and Related Products
additive evaluation; additive qualification; alternative fuels; approval protocol; ASTM; fuel additives; fuel evaluation; fuel qualification; jet fuel; material compatibility; Aviation fuels; Aviation turbine fuels; Compatibility--petroleum products
ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.
Citing ASTM Standards
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