Significance and Use
An aquifer test method is a controlled field experiment made to determine the approximate hydraulic properties of water-bearing material. The hydraulic properties that can be determined are specific to the test method. The hydraulic properties that can be determined are also dependent upon the instrumentation of the field test, the knowledge of the aquifer system at the field site, and conformance of the hydrogeologic conditions at the field site to the assumptions of the test method. Hydraulic conductivity and storage coefficient of the aquifer are the basic properties determined by most test methods. Test methods can be designed also to determine vertical and horizontal anisotropy, aquifer discontinuities, vertical hydraulic conductivity of confining beds, well efficiency, turbulent flow, and specific storage and vertical permeability of confining beds.
1.1 This guide covers an integral part of a series of standards that are being prepared on the in situ determination of hydraulic properties of aquifer systems by single- or multiple-well tests. This guide provides guidance for development of a conceptual model of a field site and selection of an analytical test method for determination of hydraulic properties. This guide does not establish a fixed procedure for determination of hydrologic properties.
1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.3 Limitations—Well techniques have limitations in the determination of hydraulic properties of groundwater flow systems. These limitations are related primarily to the simplifying assumptions that are implicit in each test method. The response of an aquifer system to stress is not unique; therefore, the system must be known sufficiently to select the proper analytical method.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.5 This guide offers an organized collection of information or a series of options and does not recommend a specific course of action. This document cannot replace education or experience and should be used in conjunction with professional judgment. Not all aspects of this guide may be applicable in all circumstances. This ASTM standard is not intended to represent or replace the standard of care by which the adequacy of a given professional service must be judged, nor should this document be applied without consideration of a project's many unique aspects. The word “Standard” in the title of this document means only that the document has been approved through the ASTM consensus process.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
D4044 Test Method for (Field Procedure) for Instantaneous Change in Head (Slug) Tests for Determining Hydraulic Properties of Aquifers
D4050 Test Method for (Field Procedure) for Withdrawal and Injection Well Tests for Determining Hydraulic Properties of Aquifer Systems
D4104 Test Method (Analytical Procedure) for Determining Transmissivity of Nonleaky Confined Aquifers by Overdamped Well Response to Instantaneous Change in Head (Slug Tests)
D4105 Test Method for (Analytical Procedure) for Determining Transmissivity and Storage Coefficient of Nonleaky Confined Aquifers by the Modified Theis Nonequilibrium Method
D4106 Test Method for (Analytical Procedure) for Determining Transmissivity and Storage Coefficient of Nonleaky Confined Aquifers by the Theis Nonequilibrium Method
D4630 Test Method for Determining Transmissivity and Storage Coefficient of Low-Permeability Rocks by In Situ Measurements Using the Constant Head Injection Test
D4631 Test Method for Determining Transmissivity and Storativity of Low Permeability Rocks by In Situ Measurements Using Pressure Pulse Technique
D5269 Test Method for Determining Transmissivity of Nonleaky Confined Aquifers by the Theis Recovery Method
D5270 Test Method for Determining Transmissivity and Storage Coefficient of Bounded, Nonleaky, Confined Aquifers
D5472 Test Method for Determining Specific Capacity and Estimating Transmissivity at the Control Well
D5473 Test Method for (Analytical Procedure for) Analyzing the Effects of Partial Penetration of Control Well and Determining the Horizontal and Vertical Hydraulic Conductivity in a Nonleaky Confined Aquifer
D5716 Test Method for Measuring the Rate of Well Discharge by Circular Orifice Weir
D5785 Test Method for (Analytical Procedure) for Determining Transmissivity of Confined Nonleaky Aquifers by Underdamped Well Response to Instantaneous Change in Head (Slug Test)
D5786 Practice for (Field Procedure) for Constant Drawdown Tests in Flowing Wells for Determining Hydraulic Properties of Aquifer Systems
D5850 Test Method for (Analytical Procedure) Determining Transmissivity, Storage Coefficient, and Anisotropy Ratio from a Network of Partially Penetrating Wells
D5881 Test Method for (Analytical Procedure) Determining Transmissivity of Confined Nonleaky Aquifers by Critically Damped Well Response to Instantaneous Change in Head (Slug)
D5912 Test Method for (Analytical Procedure) Determining Hydraulic Conductivity of an Unconfined Aquifer by Overdamped Well Response to Instantaneous Change in Head (Slug)
D5920 Test Method (Analytical Procedure) for Tests of Anisotropic Unconfined Aquifers by Neuman Method
aquifers; aquifer tests; confining beds; control wells; discharging wells; hydraulic conductivity; observation wells; piezometers; storage coefficient; transmissivity : Aquifers; Coefficient of storage; Confined aquifers; Control wells; Discharging wells; Field testing--ground water/aquifers; Hydraulic conductivity/transmissivity; Observation wells; Piezometers; Storativity; Transmissivity and reflectivity;
ICS Number Code 13.060.10 (Water of natural resources)
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