Active Standard ASTM D396 | Developed by Subcommittee: D02.E0
Book of Standards Volume: 05.01
Historical (view previous versions of standard)
This specification covers grades of fuel oil intended for use in various types of fuel-oil-burning equipment under various climatic and operating conditions. These grades include the following: Grades No. 1 S5000, No. 1 S500, No. 2 S5000, and No. 2 S500 for use in domestic and small industrial burners; Grades No. 1 S5000 and No. 1 S500 adapted to vaporizing type burners or where storage conditions require low pour point fuel; Grades No. 4 (Light) and No. 4 (Heavy) for use in commercial/industrial burners; and Grades No. 5 (Light), No. 5 (Heavy), and No. 6 for use in industrial burners. Preheating is usually required for handling and proper atomization. The grades of fuel oil shall be homogeneous hydrocarbon oils, free from inorganic acid, and free from excessive amounts of solid or fibrous foreign matter. Grades containing residual components shall remain uniform in normal storage and not separate by gravity into light and heavy oil components outside the viscosity limits for the grade. The grades of fuel oil shall conform to the limiting requirements prescribed for: (1) flash point, (2) water and sediment, (3) physical distillation or simulated distillation, (4) kinematic viscosity, (5) Ramsbottom carbon residue, (6) ash, (7) sulfur, (8) copper strip corrosion, (9) density, and (10) pour point. The test methods for determining conformance to the specified properties are given.
This abstract is a brief summary of the referenced standard. It is informational only and not an official part of the standard; the full text of the standard itself must be referred to for its use and application. ASTM does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents of this abstract are accurate, complete or up to date.
1.1 This specification (see Note 1) covers grades of fuel oil intended for use in various types of fuel-oil-burning equipment under various climatic and operating conditions. These grades are described as follows:
1.1.1 Grades No. 1 S5000, No. 1 S500, No. 2 S5000, and No. 2 S500 are middle distillate fuels for use in domestic and small industrial burners. Grades No. 1 S5000 and No. 1 S500 are particularly adapted to vaporizing type burners or where storage conditions require low pour point fuel.
1.1.2 Grades No. 4 (Light) and No. 4 are heavy distillate fuels or middle distillate/residual fuel blends used in commercial/industrial burners equipped for this viscosity range.
1.1.3 Grades No. 5 (Light), No. 5 (Heavy), and No. 6 are residual fuels of increasing viscosity and boiling range, used in industrial burners. Preheating is usually required for handling and proper atomization.
1.2 This specification is for the use of purchasing agencies in formulating specifications to be included in contracts for purchases of fuel oils and for the guidance of consumers of fuel oils in the selection of the grades most suitable for their needs.
1.3 Nothing in this specification shall preclude observance of federal, state, or local regulations which can be more restrictive.
1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D56 Test Method for Flash Point by Tag Closed Cup Tester
D86 Test Method for Distillation of Petroleum Products at Atmospheric Pressure
D93 Test Methods for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester
D95 Test Method for Water in Petroleum Products and Bituminous Materials by Distillation
D97 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products
D129 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (General High Pressure Decomposition Device Method)
D130 Test Method for Corrosiveness to Copper from Petroleum Products by Copper Strip Test
D445 Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity)
D473 Test Method for Sediment in Crude Oils and Fuel Oils by the Extraction Method
D482 Test Method for Ash from Petroleum Products
D524 Test Method for Ramsbottom Carbon Residue of Petroleum Products
D975 Specification for Diesel Fuel Oils
D1266 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (Lamp Method)
D1298 Test Method for Density, Relative Density, or API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Liquid Petroleum Products by Hydrometer Method
D1552 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (High-Temperature Method)
D2500 Test Method for Cloud Point of Petroleum Products
D2622 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
D2709 Test Method for Water and Sediment in Middle Distillate Fuels by Centrifuge
D2887 Test Method for Boiling Range Distribution of Petroleum Fractions by Gas Chromatography
D3828 Test Methods for Flash Point by Small Scale Closed Cup Tester
D4052 Test Method for Density, Relative Density, and API Gravity of Liquids by Digital Density Meter
D4057 Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D4177 Practice for Automatic Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D4294 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum and Petroleum Products by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
D4306 Practice for Aviation Fuel Sample Containers for Tests Affected by Trace Contamination
D4865 Guide for Generation and Dissipation of Static Electricity in Petroleum Fuel Systems
D5453 Test Method for Determination of Total Sulfur in Light Hydrocarbons, Spark Ignition Engine Fuel, Diesel Engine Fuel, and Engine Oil by Ultraviolet Fluorescence
D5842 Practice for Sampling and Handling of Fuels for Volatility Measurement
D5854 Practice for Mixing and Handling of Liquid Samples of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D5949 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products (Automatic Pressure Pulsing Method)
D5950 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products (Automatic Tilt Method)
D5985 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products (Rotational Method)
D6469 Guide for Microbial Contamination in Fuels and Fuel Systems
D6749 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products (Automatic Air Pressure Method)
D6751 Specification for Biodiesel Fuel Blend Stock (B100) for Middle Distillate Fuels
D6892 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products (Robotic Tilt Method)
D7039 Test Method for Sulfur in Gasoline, Diesel Fuel, Jet Fuel, Kerosine, Biodiesel, Biodiesel Blends, and Gasoline-Ethanol Blends by Monochromatic Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
D7042 Test Method for Dynamic Viscosity and Density of Liquids by Stabinger Viscometer (and the Calculation of Kinematic Viscosity)
D7094 Test Method for Flash Point by Modified Continuously Closed Cup (MCCCFP) Tester
D7220 Test Method for Sulfur in Automotive, Heating, and Jet Fuels by Monochromatic Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
Other Documents26CFRPart48 Diesel Fuel Excise Tax; Dye Color and Concentration Available from U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, 732 N. Capitol St., NW, Mail Stop: SDE, Washington, DC 20401. 40CFRPart80 Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives EN 14078 Determination of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) content in middle distillates -- Infrared spectrometry method Available from the National CEN members listed on the CEN website (www.cenorm.be) or from the CEN/TC 19 Secretariat (firstname.lastname@example.org).
ICS Number Code 75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)
UNSPSC Code 15101700(Fuel Oils)