ASTM D396 - 14a

    Standard Specification for Fuel Oils

    Active Standard ASTM D396 | Developed by Subcommittee: D02.E0

    Book of Standards Volume: 05.01


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    Abstract

    This specification covers grades of fuel oil intended for use in various types of fuel-oil-burning equipment under various climatic and operating conditions. These grades include the following: Grades No. 1 S5000, No. 1 S500, No. 2 S5000, and No. 2 S500 for use in domestic and small industrial burners; Grades No. 1 S5000 and No. 1 S500 adapted to vaporizing type burners or where storage conditions require low pour point fuel; Grades No. 4 (Light) and No. 4 (Heavy) for use in commercial/industrial burners; and Grades No. 5 (Light), No. 5 (Heavy), and No. 6 for use in industrial burners. Preheating is usually required for handling and proper atomization. The grades of fuel oil shall be homogeneous hydrocarbon oils, free from inorganic acid, and free from excessive amounts of solid or fibrous foreign matter. Grades containing residual components shall remain uniform in normal storage and not separate by gravity into light and heavy oil components outside the viscosity limits for the grade. The grades of fuel oil shall conform to the limiting requirements prescribed for: (1) flash point, (2) water and sediment, (3) physical distillation or simulated distillation, (4) kinematic viscosity, (5) Ramsbottom carbon residue, (6) ash, (7) sulfur, (8) copper strip corrosion, (9) density, and (10) pour point. The test methods for determining conformance to the specified properties are given.

    This abstract is a brief summary of the referenced standard. It is informational only and not an official part of the standard; the full text of the standard itself must be referred to for its use and application. ASTM does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents of this abstract are accurate, complete or up to date.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This specification (see Note 1) covers grades of fuel oil intended for use in various types of fuel-oil-burning equipment under various climatic and operating conditions. These grades are described as follows:

    1.1.1 Grades No. 1 S5000, No. 1 S500, No. 2 S5000, and No. 2 S500 are middle distillate fuels for use in domestic and small industrial burners. Grades No. 1 S5000 and No. 1 S500 are particularly adapted to vaporizing type burners or where storage conditions require low pour point fuel.

    1.1.2 Grades No. 4 (Light) and No. 4 are heavy distillate fuels or middle distillate/residual fuel blends used in commercial/industrial burners equipped for this viscosity range.

    1.1.3 Grades No. 5 (Light), No. 5 (Heavy), and No. 6 are residual fuels of increasing viscosity and boiling range, used in industrial burners. Preheating is usually required for handling and proper atomization.

    Note 1: For information on the significance of the terminology and test methods used in this specification, see Appendix X1.

    Note 2: A more detailed description of the grades of fuel oils is given in X1.3.

    1.2 This specification is for the use of purchasing agencies in formulating specifications to be included in contracts for purchases of fuel oils and for the guidance of consumers of fuel oils in the selection of the grades most suitable for their needs.

    1.3 Nothing in this specification shall preclude observance of federal, state, or local regulations which can be more restrictive.

    1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

    Note 3: The generation and dissipation of static electricity can create problems in the handling of distillate burner fuel oils. For more information on the subject, see Guide D4865.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D56 Test Method for Flash Point by Tag Closed Cup Tester

    D86 Test Method for Distillation of Petroleum Products at Atmospheric Pressure

    D93 Test Methods for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester

    D95 Test Method for Water in Petroleum Products and Bituminous Materials by Distillation

    D97 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products

    D129 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (General High Pressure Decomposition Device Method)

    D130 Test Method for Corrosiveness to Copper from Petroleum Products by Copper Strip Test

    D445 Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity)

    D473 Test Method for Sediment in Crude Oils and Fuel Oils by the Extraction Method

    D482 Test Method for Ash from Petroleum Products

    D524 Test Method for Ramsbottom Carbon Residue of Petroleum Products

    D975 Specification for Diesel Fuel Oils

    D1266 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (Lamp Method)

    D1298 Test Method for Density, Relative Density, or API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Liquid Petroleum Products by Hydrometer Method

    D1552 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (High-Temperature Method)

    D2500 Test Method for Cloud Point of Petroleum Products

    D2622 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

    D2709 Test Method for Water and Sediment in Middle Distillate Fuels by Centrifuge

    D2887 Test Method for Boiling Range Distribution of Petroleum Fractions by Gas Chromatography

    D3828 Test Methods for Flash Point by Small Scale Closed Cup Tester

    D4052 Test Method for Density, Relative Density, and API Gravity of Liquids by Digital Density Meter

    D4057 Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    D4177 Practice for Automatic Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    D4294 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum and Petroleum Products by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

    D4306 Practice for Aviation Fuel Sample Containers for Tests Affected by Trace Contamination

    D4865 Guide for Generation and Dissipation of Static Electricity in Petroleum Fuel Systems

    D5453 Test Method for Determination of Total Sulfur in Light Hydrocarbons, Spark Ignition Engine Fuel, Diesel Engine Fuel, and Engine Oil by Ultraviolet Fluorescence

    D5842 Practice for Sampling and Handling of Fuels for Volatility Measurement

    D5854 Practice for Mixing and Handling of Liquid Samples of Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    D5949 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products (Automatic Pressure Pulsing Method)

    D5950 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products (Automatic Tilt Method)

    D5985 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products (Rotational Method)

    D6469 Guide for Microbial Contamination in Fuels and Fuel Systems

    D6749 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products (Automatic Air Pressure Method)

    D6751 Specification for Biodiesel Fuel Blend Stock (B100) for Middle Distillate Fuels

    D6892 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products (Robotic Tilt Method)

    D7039 Test Method for Sulfur in Gasoline, Diesel Fuel, Jet Fuel, Kerosine, Biodiesel, Biodiesel Blends, and Gasoline-Ethanol Blends by Monochromatic Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

    D7042 Test Method for Dynamic Viscosity and Density of Liquids by Stabinger Viscometer (and the Calculation of Kinematic Viscosity)

    D7094 Test Method for Flash Point by Modified Continuously Closed Cup (MCCCFP) Tester

    D7220 Test Method for Sulfur in Automotive, Heating, and Jet Fuels by Monochromatic Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

    Other Documents

    26CFRPart48 Diesel Fuel Excise Tax; Dye Color and Concentration Available from U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, 732 N. Capitol St., NW, Mail Stop: SDE, Washington, DC 20401.

    40CFRPart80 Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives

    EN 14078 Determination of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) content in middle distillates -- Infrared spectrometry method Available from the National CEN members listed on the CEN website (www.cenorm.be) or from the CEN/TC 19 Secretariat (astm@nen.nl).


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 15101700(Fuel Oils)


    Referencing This Standard

    DOI: 10.1520/D0396-14A

    ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.

    Citation Format

    ASTM D396-14a, Standard Specification for Fuel Oils, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2014, www.astm.org

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