ASTM D3874 - 13

    Standard Test Method for Ignition of Materials by Hot Wire Sources

    Active Standard ASTM D3874 | Developed by Subcommittee: D09.21

    Book of Standards Volume: 10.02


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    ASTM D3874

    Significance and Use

    5.1 During operation of electrical equipment, including wires, resistors, and other conductors, it is possible for overheating to occur, under certain conditions of operation, or when malfunctions occur. When this happens, a possible result is ignition of the insulation material.

    5.2 This test method assesses the relative resistance of electrical insulating materials to ignition by the effect of hot wire sources.

    5.3 This test method determines the average time, in seconds, required for material specimens to ignite under the specified conditions of test.

    5.4 This method is suitable to characterize materials, subject to the appropriate limitations of an expected precision of ±15 %, to categorize materials.

    5.5 In this procedure the specimens are subjected to one or more specific sets of laboratory conditions. If different test conditions are substituted or the end-use conditions are changed, it is not always possible by or from this test to predict changes in the fire-test-response characteristics measured. Therefore, the results are valid only for the fire test exposure conditions described in this procedure.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method is intended to differentiate, in a preliminary fashion, among materials with respect to their resistance to ignition because of their proximity to electrically-heated wires and other heat sources.2

    1.2 This test method applies to molded or sheet materials available in thicknesses ranging from 0.25 to 6.4 mm (0.010 to 0.25 in.).

    1.3 This test method applies to materials that are rigid at normal room temperatures. That is, it applies to materials for which the specimen does not deform during preparation, especially during the wire-wrapping step described in 10.1. Examples of deformation that render this test method inapplicable include:

    1.3.1 Bowing, in either a transverse or a longitudinal direction, or twisting of the specimen, during the wire-wrapping step, to a degree visible to the eye.

    1.3.2 Visible indentation of the wrapped wire into the specimen.

    1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound units given in parentheses are for information only. (See SI10 for further details.)

    1.5 This test method measures and describes the response or materials, products, or assemblies to heat and flame under controlled conditions, but does not by itself incorporate all factors required for fire hazard or fire risk assessment of the materials, products, or assemblies under actual fire conditions.

    1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    1.7 Fire testing is inherently hazardous. Adequate safeguards for personnel and property shall be employed in conducting these tests.

    Note 1Although this test method and IEC 60695-2-20, differ in approach and in detail, data obtained using either are technically equivalent.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D1711 Terminology Relating to Electrical Insulation

    E176 Terminology of Fire Standards

    IEC Standards

    IEC60695-2-20 Fire Hazard Testing--Section 20: Glowing/Hot-wire Based Test Methods, Hot-wire Coil Ignitability Test on Materials Available from International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), 3 rue de Varemb, Case postale 131, CH-1211, Geneva 20, Switzerland, http://www.iec.ch.

    IEC60695-4 Fire Hazard Testing--Part 4: Terminology Concerning Fire Tests


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 13.220.40 (Ignitability and burning behaviour of materials and products); 29.035.01 (Insulating materials in general)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 26121501(Heating wire)


    DOI: 10.1520/D3874

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