Significance and Use
In most natural waters selenium concentrations seldom exceed 10 μg/L. However, the runoff from certain types of seleniferous soils at various times of the year can produce concentrations as high as several hundred micrograms per litre. Additionally, industrial contamination can be a significant source of selenium in rivers and streams.
High concentrations of selenium in drinking water have been suspected of being toxic to animal life. Selenium is a priority pollutant and all public water agencies are required to monitor its concentration.
These test methods determine the dominant species of selenium reportedly found in most natural and wastewaters, including selenities, selenates, and organo-selenium compounds.
1.1 These test methods cover the determination of dissolved and total recoverable selenium in most waters and wastewaters. Both test methods utilize atomic absorption procedures, as follows:
|Test Method A—Gaseous Hydride AAS || 7 to 16|
|Test Method B—Graphite Furnace AAS||17 to 26|
1.2 These test methods are applicable to both inorganic and organic forms of dissolved selenium. They are applicable also to particulate forms of the element, provided that they are solubilized in the appropriate acid digestion step. However, certain selenium-containing heavy metallic sediments may not undergo digestion.
1.3 These test methods are most applicable within the following ranges:
|Test Method A—Gaseous Hydride AAS ||1 to 20 μg/L|
|Test Method B—Graphite Furnace AAS||2 to 100 μg/L|
These ranges may be extended (with a corresponding loss in precision) by decreasing the sample size or diluting the original sample, but concentrations much greater than the upper limits are more conveniently determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.
1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazard statements, see 11.12 and 13.14.
7.1 This test method covers the determination of dissolved and total recoverable selenium in the range from 1 to 20 μg/L. The range may be extended by decreasing the sample size or diluting the original sample.
7.2 This test method has been used successfully with reagent water, natural water, wastewater, and brines. The information on precision may not apply to waters of other matrices.
17.1 This test method includes the determination of dissolved and total recoverable selenium in the range from 2 to 100 μg/L. The range may be extended by decreasing the sample size or diluting the original sample.
17.2 This test method has been used successfully with reagent water, waste treatment plant effluent, tap water, well water, and treated wood plant effluent. The information on precision may not apply to waters of other matrices.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D1129 Terminology Relating to Water
D1193 Specification for Reagent Water
D2777 Practice for Determination of Precision and Bias of Applicable Test Methods of Committee D19 on Water
D3370 Practices for Sampling Water from Closed Conduits
D3919 Practice for Measuring Trace Elements in Water by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry
D4841 Practice for Estimation of Holding Time for Water Samples Containing Organic and Inorganic Constituents
D5810 Guide for Spiking into Aqueous Samples
D5847 Practice for Writing Quality Control Specifications for Standard Test Methods for Water Analysis
atomic absorption; furnace (Method B); hydride technique (Method A); selenium; total recoverable selenium; water; Atomic absorption spectrophotometry/spectroscopy; Dissolved elements (of water); Furnaces; Gaseous hydride AAS; Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS); Hydride generation; Inorganic compounds--water; Selenium content--water; Spectrophotometry--atomic absorption (water/wastewater); Total recoverable elements (in water); Wastewater testing/treatment ;
ICS Number Code 13.060.50 (Examination of water for chemical substances)
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Citing ASTM Standards
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