ASTM D381 - 12

    Standard Test Method for Gum Content in Fuels by Jet Evaporation

    Active Standard ASTM D381 | Developed by Subcommittee: D02.14

    Book of Standards Volume: 05.01


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    Significance and Use

    The true significance of this test method for determining gum in motor gasoline is not firmly established. It has been proved that high gum can cause induction-system deposits and sticking of intake valves, and in most instances, it can be assumed that low gum will ensure absence of induction-system difficulties. The user should, however, realize that the test method is not of itself correlative to induction-system deposits. The primary purpose of the test method, as applied to motor gasoline, is the measurement of the oxidation products formed in the sample prior to or during the comparatively mild conditions of the test procedure. Since many motor gasolines are purposely blended with nonvolatile oils or additives, the heptane extraction step is necessary to remove these from the evaporation residue so that the deleterious material, gum, may be determined. With respect to aviation turbine fuels, large quantities of gum are indicative of contamination of fuel by higher boiling oils or particulate matter and generally reflect poor handling practices in distribution downstream of the refinery.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the existent gum content of aviation fuels, and the gum content of motor gasolines or other volatile distillates in their finished form, (including those containing alcohol and ether type oxygenates and deposit control additivessee Note 7 for additional information) at the time of test.

    1.2 Provisions are made for the determination of the heptane insoluble portion of the residue of non-aviation fuels.

    1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

    1.3.1 The accepted SI unit of pressure is the Pascal (Pa); the accepted SI unit for temperature is degrees Celsius.

    1.4 WARNINGMercury has been designated by many regulatory agencies as a hazardous material that can cause central nervous system, kidney and liver damage. Mercury, or its vapor, may be hazardous to health and corrosive to materials. Caution should be taken when handling mercury and mercury containing products. See the applicable product Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for details and EPAs websitehttp://www.epa.gov/mercury/faq.htmfor additional information. Users should be aware that selling mercury and/or mercury containing products into your state or country may be prohibited by law.

    1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific warning statements, see 6.4, 7.4, and 9.1.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D1655 Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels

    D4057 Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    E1 Specification for ASTM Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers

    E29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specifications

    Energy Institute Standard

    IP540 Determination of the existent gum content of aviation turbine fuel - jet evaporation method


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 15101500(Petroleum and distillates)


    Referencing This Standard

    DOI: 10.1520/D0381-12

    ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.

    Citation Format

    ASTM D381-12, Standard Test Method for Gum Content in Fuels by Jet Evaporation, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2012, www.astm.org

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