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Significance and Use
5.1 This practice can be used to quantify the performance of a process stream analyzer system or its subsystem in terms of precision and bias relative to those of a primary test method for the property of interest.
5.2 This practice provides developers or manufacturers of process stream analyzer systems with useful procedures for evaluating the capability of newly designed systems for industrial applications that require reliable prediction of measurements of a specific property by a primary test method of a flowing component or product.
5.3 This practice provides purchasers of process stream analyzer systems with some reliable options for specifying acceptance test requirements for process stream analyzer systems at the time of commissioning to ensure the system is capable of making the desired property measurement with the appropriate precision or bias specifications, or both.
5.4 PPTMR from Analyzer Systems validated in accordance with this practice can be used to predict, with a specified confidence, what the PTMR would be, to within a specified tolerance, if the actual primary test method was conducted on the materials that are within the validated property range and type.
5.5 This practice provides the user of a process stream analyzer system with useful information from on-going quality control charts to monitor the variation in Δ over time, and trigger update of correlation relationship between the analyzer system and primary test method in a timely manner.
5.6 Validation information obtained in the application of this practice is applicable only to the material type and property range of the materials used to perform the validation. Selection of the property levels and the compositional characteristics of the samples must be suitable for the application of the analyzer system. This practice allows the user to write a comprehensive validation statement for the analyzer system including specific limits for the validated range of application. This practice does not recommend extrapolation of validation results beyond the material type and property range used to obtain these results. In addition, users are cautioned that for measurement systems that show matrix dependencies, bias information determined from pure compounds or simple mixtures of pure compounds may not be representative of that achieved on actual process or product samples.
1.1 This practice describes procedures and methodologies based on the statistical principles of Practice D6708 to validate whether the degree of agreement between the results produced by a total analyzer system (or its subsystem), versus the results produced by an independent test method that purports to measure the same property, meets user-specified requirements. This is a performance-based validation, to be conducted using a set of materials that are not used a priori in the development of any correlation between the two measurement systems under investigation. A result from the independent test method is herein referred to as a Primary Test Method Result (PTMR).
1.2 This practice assumes any correlation necessary to mitigate systemic biases between the analyzer system and PTM have been applied to the analyzer results. See Guide D7235 for procedures for establishing such correlations.
1.3 This practice requires that both the primary method against which the analyzer is compared to, and the analyzer system under investigation, are in statistical control. Practices described in Practice D6299 should be used to ensure this condition is met.
1.4 This practice applies if the process stream analyzer system and the primary test method are based on the same measurement principle(s), or, if the process stream analyzer system uses a direct and well-understood measurement principle that is similar to the measurement principle of the primary test method. This practice also applies if the process stream analyzer system uses a different measurement technology from the primary test method, provided that the calibration protocol for the direct output of the analyzer does not require use of the PTMRs (see Case 1 in Note 1).
1.5 This practice does not apply if the process stream analyzer system utilizes an indirect or mathematically modeled measurement principle such as chemometric or multivariate analysis techniques where PTMRs are required for the chemometric or multivariate model development. Users should refer to Practice D6122 for detailed validation procedures for these types of analyzer systems (see Case 2 in Note 1).
1.6 Performance Validation is conducted by calculating the precision and bias of the differences between results from the analyzer system (or subsystem) after the application of any necessary correlation, (such results are herein referred to as Predicted Primary Test Method Results (PPTMRs)), versus the PTMRs for the same sample set. Results used in the calculation are for samples that are not used in the development of the correlation. The calculated precision and bias are statistically compared to user-specified requirements for the analyzer system application.
1.6.1 For analyzers used in product release or product quality certification applications, the precision and bias requirement for the degree of agreement are typically based on the site or published precision of the Primary Test Method.
1.6.2 This practice does not describe procedures for establishing precision and bias requirements for analyzer system applications. Such requirements must be based on the criticality of the results to the intended business application and on contractual and regulatory requirements. The user must establish precision and bias requirements prior to initiating the validation procedures described herein.
1.11 Two types of validation are described: General Validation, and Level Specific Validation. These are typically conducted at installation or after major maintenance once the system mechanical fitness-for-use has been established.
1.11.1 General Validation is based on the statistical principles and methodology of Practice D6708. In most cases, General Validation is preferred, but may not always be possible if the variation in validation materials is insufficient. General Validation will validate analyzer operation over a wider operating range than Level Specific Validation.
1.11.2 When the variation in available validation materials is insufficient to satisfy the requirements of Practice D6708, a Level Specific Validation is done to validate analyzer operation over a limited range.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D1265 Practice for Sampling Liquefied Petroleum (LP) Gases, Manual Method
D3606 Test Method for Determination of Benzene and Toluene in Finished Motor and Aviation Gasoline by Gas Chromatography
D4057 Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D4177 Practice for Automatic Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D5842 Practice for Sampling and Handling of Fuels for Volatility Measurement
D6122 Practice for Validation of the Performance of Multivariate Online, At-Line, and Laboratory Infrared Spectrophotometer Based Analyzer Systems
D6277 Test Method for Determination of Benzene in Spark-Ignition Engine Fuels Using Mid Infrared Spectroscopy
D6299 Practice for Applying Statistical Quality Assurance and Control Charting Techniques to Evaluate Analytical Measurement System Performance
D6708 Practice for Statistical Assessment and Improvement of Expected Agreement Between Two Test Methods that Purport to Measure the Same Property of a Material
D7235 Guide for Establishing a Linear Correlation Relationship Between Analyzer and Primary Test Method Results Using Relevant ASTM Standard Practices
D7278 Guide for Prediction of Analyzer Sample System Lag Times
D7453 Practice for Sampling of Petroleum Products for Analysis by Process Stream Analyzers and for Process Stream Analyzer System Validation
D7808 Practice for Determining the Site Precision of a Process Stream Analyzer on Process Stream Material
E456 Terminology Relating to Quality and Statistics
E1655 Practices for Infrared Multivariate Quantitative Analysis
F307 Practice for Sampling Pressurized Gas for Gas Analysis
ICS Number Code 17.120.10 (Flow in closed conduits)