ASTM D3739 - 06(2010)

    Standard Practice for Calculation and Adjustment of the Langelier Saturation Index for Reverse Osmosis

    Active Standard ASTM D3739 | Developed by Subcommittee: D19.08

    Book of Standards Volume: 11.02


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    Significance and Use

    In the design and operation of reverse osmosis installations, it is important to predict the calcium carbonate scaling properties of the concentrate stream. Because of the increase in total dissolved solids in the concentrate stream and the difference in passages for calcium ion, bicarbonate ion, and free CO2, the calcium carbonate scaling properties of the concentrate stream will generally be quite different from those of the feed solution. This practice permits the calculation of the Langelier Saturation Index for the concentrate stream from the feed water analyses and the reverse osmosis operating parameters.

    A positive Langelier Saturation Index indicates the tendency to form a calcium carbonate scale, which can be damaging to reverse osmosis performance. This practice gives various procedures for the adjustment of the Langelier saturation index.

    The tendency to form CaCo3 scale can be suppressed by the addition of antiscalents or crystal modifiers. Suppliers of antisealents and crystal modifiers can provide information on the scale inhibition peformance of these types of chemical. Their use may be appropriate for reducing scale formation in RO systems. The RO system supplier should be consulted prior to the use of antisealents and crystal modifiers to ensure they will not have a negative impact on the RO system.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This practice covers the calculation and adjustment of the Langelier saturation index for the concentrate stream of a reverse osmosis device. This index is used to determine the need for calcium carbonate scale control in the operation and design of reverse osmosis installations. This practice is applicable for concentrate streams containing xx 10 to 10 000 mg/L of total dissolved solids. For concentrate containing over 10 000 mg/L see Practice D4582.

    1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

    1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D511 Test Methods for Calcium and Magnesium In Water

    D1067 Test Methods for Acidity or Alkalinity of Water

    D1129 Terminology Relating to Water

    D1293 Test Methods for pH of Water

    D1888 Methods Of Test for Particulate and Dissolved Matter in Water

    D4194 Test Methods for Operating Characteristics of Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration Devices

    D4195 Guide for Water Analysis for Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration Application

    D4582 Practice for Calculation and Adjustment of the Stiff and Davis Stability Index for Reverse Osmosis

    D6161 Terminology Used for Microfiltration, Ultrafiltration, Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis Membrane Processes


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 07.030 (Physics. Chemistry)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code


    Referencing This Standard

    DOI: 10.1520/D3739-06R10

    ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.

    Citation Format

    ASTM D3739-06(2010), Standard Practice for Calculation and Adjustment of the Langelier Saturation Index for Reverse Osmosis, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2010, www.astm.org

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