ASTM D3616 - 95(2009)

    Standard Test Method for Rubber, Raw-Determination of Gel, Swelling Index, and Dilute Solution Viscosity

    Active Standard ASTM D3616 | Developed by Subcommittee: D11.11

    Book of Standards Volume: 09.01


    Buy Standard (PDF)
    5 pages
    $42.00
    Buy Standard (Print)
    5 pages
    $42.00

    Historical (view previous versions of standard)

    Translated Standard: Russian
    more info


    ASTM D3616

    Significance and Use

    These tests are particularly useful for quality control in the production of synthetic rubbers.

    Percent gel is a measure of the amount of insoluble rubber present in the chosen solvent. Gel may be introduced intentionally in some rubbers. Variations from a normal level indicate changes in the polymerization system.

    Swelling index is a measure of the type of gel. Gel with a low-swelling index is referred to as hard gel and usually indicates the presence of material that does not break down readily by milling. A high-swelling index normally indicates the presence of a loose gel that may be broken down easily by milling.

    In low-gel or gel-free rubbers, the DSV correlates directly with the molecular weight. Since the viscosity is measured only on the soluble portion of the rubber, the use of DSV to predict molecular weight in rubbers having high gel values is meaningless.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the dilute solution viscosity (DSV), the gel characteristics, and the swelling index of raw non-oil-extended and non-pigmented SBR and NBR.

    1.2 This test method may be used to determine the DSV and gel characteristics of rubbers other than SBR and NBR, however, solvents other than 2-butanone and toluene may be required.

    1.3 This test method is not intended for the measurement of micro-gel.

    1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

    1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D4483 Practice for Evaluating Precision for Test Method Standards in the Rubber and Carbon Black Manufacturing Industries


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 83.040.10 (Latex and raw rubber)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 13100000(Rubber and elastomers)


    DOI: 10.1520/D3616-95R09

    ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.

    ASTM D3616

    Citing ASTM Standards
    Back to Top