ASTM D3559 - 08

    Standard Test Methods for Lead in Water

    Active Standard ASTM D3559 | Developed by Subcommittee: D19.05

    Book of Standards Volume: 11.01


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    Significance and Use

    The test for lead is necessary because it is a toxicant and because there is a limit specified for lead in potable water in the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations. This test serves to determine whether the lead content of potable water is above or below the acceptable limit.

    1. Scope

    1.1 These test methods cover the determination of dissolved and total recoverable lead in water and waste water by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. Four test methods are included as follows:

    Concentration
    Range

    Sections
    Test Method AAtomic Absorption, Direct1.0 to 10 mg/L 7 to 15
    Test Method BAtomic Absorption,
    Chelation-Extraction
    100 to 1000 μg/L16 to 24
    Test Method CDifferential Pulse Anodic
    Stripping Voltammetry
    1 to 100 μg/L25 to 35
    Test Method DAtomic Absorption,
    Graphite Furnace
    5 to 100 μg/L36 to 44

    1.2 Test Method B can be used to determine lead in brines. Test Method D has been used successfully with reagent water, lake water, well water, filtered tap water, condensate from a medium Btu coal gasification process, waste treatment plant effluent, and a production plant process water.

    1.3 It is the user's responsibility to ensure the validity of these test methods for waters of untested matrices.

    1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

    1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazards statements, see 10.4.1, Note 2, 11.2, 11.3, 21.7, 21.8, 21.11, 23.7, 23.10, 32.2.1, and 33.1.

    7.1 This test method covers the determination of dissolved and total recoverable lead in most waters and wastewaters.

    7.2 The test method is applicable in the range from 1.0 to 10 mg/L of lead. The upper limits of detectability can be increased to concentrations greater than 10 mg/L by dilution of the sample.

    17.1 This test method covers the determination of dissolved and total recoverable lead in most waters and brines.

    17.2 This test method is applicable in the range from 100 to 1000 μg/L of lead. The range may be extended upward by dilution of the samples.

    27.1 This test method describes the determination of lead in water and waste waters using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry.

    27.2 This test method is applicable up to a concentration of 100 μg/L lead. Higher concentrations can be determined by dilution.

    27.3 The lower limit of detection for lead is 1.0 μg/L.

    Note 13—The lower limit of detection for differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry is not absolute and can easily be lowered by changing the experimental parameters as described in Appendix X1. However, these variations have not been interlaboratory tested.

    39.1 This test method covers the determination of dissolved and total recoverable lead in most waters and wastewaters.

    39.2 The test method is applicable in the range from 5 to 100 μg/L of lead using a 20-μL injection. The range can be increased or decreased by varying the volume of sample injected or the instrumental settings. High concentrations may be diluted but preferably should be analyzed by direct aspiration atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Test Method A).

    39.3 This test method has been used successfully with reagent water, lake water, river water, well water, filtered tap water, condensate from a medium Btu coal gasification process, waste treatment plant effluent, and a production plant process water. It is the user's responsibility to assure validity of this test method for untested matrices.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D858 Test Methods for Manganese in Water

    D1066 Practice for Sampling Steam

    D1068 Test Methods for Iron in Water

    D1129 Terminology Relating to Water

    D1193 Specification for Reagent Water

    D1687 Test Methods for Chromium in Water

    D1688 Test Methods for Copper in Water

    D1691 Test Methods for Zinc in Water

    D1886 Test Methods for Nickel in Water

    D2777 Practice for Determination of Precision and Bias of Applicable Test Methods of Committee D19 on Water

    D3370 Practices for Sampling Water from Closed Conduits

    D3557 Test Methods for Cadmium in Water

    D3558 Test Methods for Cobalt in Water

    D3919 Practice for Measuring Trace Elements in Water by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry

    D4841 Practice for Estimation of Holding Time for Water Samples Containing Organic and Inorganic Constituents

    D5810 Guide for Spiking into Aqueous Samples

    D5847 Practice for Writing Quality Control Specifications for Standard Test Methods for Water Analysis

    E60 Practice for Analysis of Metals, Ores, and Related Materials by Spectrophotometry

    E275 Practice for Describing and Measuring Performance of Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrophotometers


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 13.060.50 (Examination of water for chemical substances)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 70171601(Water quality management)


    Referencing This Standard

    DOI: 10.1520/D3559-08

    ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.

    Citation Format

    ASTM D3559-08, Standard Test Methods for Lead in Water, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2008, www.astm.org

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