Significance and Use
The test for lead is necessary because it is a toxicant and because there is a limit specified for lead in potable water in the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations. This test serves to determine whether the lead content of potable water is above or below the acceptable limit.
1.1 These test methods cover the determination of dissolved and total recoverable lead in water and waste water by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. Four test methods are included as follows:
|Test Method A—Atomic Absorption, Direct||1.0 to 10 mg/L|| 7 to 15|
|Test Method B—Atomic Absorption,|
|100 to 1000 μg/L||16 to 24|
|Test Method C—Differential Pulse Anodic|
|1 to 100 μg/L||25 to 35|
|Test Method D—Atomic Absorption,|
|5 to 100 μg/L||36 to 44|
1.2 Test Method B can be used to determine lead in brines. Test Method D has been used successfully with reagent water, lake water, well water, filtered tap water, condensate from a medium Btu coal gasification process, waste treatment plant effluent, and a production plant process water.
1.3 It is the user's responsibility to ensure the validity of these test methods for waters of untested matrices.
1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazards statements, see 10.4.1, Note 2, 11.2, 11.3, 21.7, 21.8, 21.11, 23.7, 23.10, 32.2.1, and 33.1.
7.1 This test method covers the determination of dissolved and total recoverable lead in most waters and wastewaters.
7.2 The test method is applicable in the range from 1.0 to 10 mg/L of lead. The upper limits of detectability can be increased to concentrations greater than 10 mg/L by dilution of the sample.
17.1 This test method covers the determination of dissolved and total recoverable lead in most waters and brines.
17.2 This test method is applicable in the range from 100 to 1000 μg/L of lead. The range may be extended upward by dilution of the samples.
27.1 This test method describes the determination of lead in water and waste waters using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry.
27.2 This test method is applicable up to a concentration of 100 μg/L lead. Higher concentrations can be determined by dilution.
27.3 The lower limit of detection for lead is 1.0 μg/L.
Note 13—The lower limit of detection for differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry is not absolute and can easily be lowered by changing the experimental parameters as described in Appendix X1. However, these variations have not been interlaboratory tested.
39.1 This test method covers the determination of dissolved and total recoverable lead in most waters and wastewaters.
39.2 The test method is applicable in the range from 5 to 100 μg/L of lead using a 20-μL injection. The range can be increased or decreased by varying the volume of sample injected or the instrumental settings. High concentrations may be diluted but preferably should be analyzed by direct aspiration atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Test Method A).
39.3 This test method has been used successfully with reagent water, lake water, river water, well water, filtered tap water, condensate from a medium Btu coal gasification process, waste treatment plant effluent, and a production plant process water. It is the user's responsibility to assure validity of this test method for untested matrices.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D858 Test Methods for Manganese in Water
D1066 Practice for Sampling Steam
D1068 Test Methods for Iron in Water
D1129 Terminology Relating to Water
D1193 Specification for Reagent Water
D1687 Test Methods for Chromium in Water
D1688 Test Methods for Copper in Water
D1691 Test Methods for Zinc in Water
D1886 Test Methods for Nickel in Water
D2777 Practice for Determination of Precision and Bias of Applicable Test Methods of Committee D19 on Water
D3370 Practices for Sampling Water from Closed Conduits
D3557 Test Methods for Cadmium in Water
D3558 Test Methods for Cobalt in Water
D3919 Practice for Measuring Trace Elements in Water by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry
D4841 Practice for Estimation of Holding Time for Water Samples Containing Organic and Inorganic Constituents
D5810 Guide for Spiking into Aqueous Samples
D5847 Practice for Writing Quality Control Specifications for Standard Test Methods for Water Analysis
E60 Practice for Analysis of Metals, Ores, and Related Materials by Spectrophotometry
E275 Practice for Describing and Measuring Performance of Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrophotometers
atomic absorption; chelation-extraction; graphite furnace spectrophotometry; lead; voltammetry; Atomic absorption; Chelation-extraction; Differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry; Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS); Inorganic compounds--water; Lead content; Lead screening testing; Polarographic methods; Spectrophotometry--atomic absorption (water/wastewater); Voltammetry--differential pulse anodic stripping;
ICS Number Code 13.060.50 (Examination of water for chemical substances)
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Citing ASTM Standards
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