ASTM D3451 - 06(2012)

    Standard Guide for Testing Coating Powders and Powder Coatings

    Active Standard ASTM D3451 | Developed by Subcommittee: D01.51

    Book of Standards Volume: 06.02


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    Significance and Use

    4.1 This guide provides a useful summary to the selection and use of procedures for testing coating powders and powder coatings. It is applicable to both thermoplastic and thermoset coatings, unless indicated otherwise. By design this guide does not purport to address test methods or procedures developed specifically for the functional powder coating market, those coating powders for application to pipe or reinforced steel bars (rebar). Information on current test procedures for pipe and reinforced steel bar coating powders and powder coatings can be obtained through their respective ASTM Subcommittees, A01.05 and D01.48.

    4.2 Selection of the methods to be followed and the interpretation of results must be governed by experience and the requirements in each individual case, together with agreement between the purchaser and seller. It should be noted that many of the methods used for characterizing a coating powder, such as gel time (Section 16) and inclined flow (Section 17), are primarily meant for the relative comparison of two coating powders, rather than to give a test value that can be interpreted as good or bad. Interpretation of the test results will depend on the specific application in question and will also often depend on the chemistry of the coating powder used.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This guide covers the selection and use of procedures for testing coating powders and powder coatings. The test methods included are listed in Table 1. Where more than one test method is listed for the same characteristic, no attempt is made to indicate superiority of one method over another. Selection of the methods to be followed must be governed by experience and the requirements in each individual case, together with agreement between the purchaser and the seller.

    1.2 This guide also refers to methods developed specifically for the coating powder industry by the Powder Coating Institute, PCI, and the International Organization for Standards, ISO.

    1.3 This guide describes the testing of coating powders as applied by electrostatic spray, fluidized bed, or any other applicable method.

    1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

    1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    B117 Practice for Operating Salt Spray (Fog) Apparatus

    D522 Test Methods for Mandrel Bend Test of Attached Organic Coatings

    D523 Test Method for Specular Gloss

    D609 Practice for Preparation of Cold-Rolled Steel Panels for Testing Paint, Varnish, Conversion Coatings, and Related Coating Products

    D610 Practice for Evaluating Degree of Rusting on Painted Steel Surfaces

    D658 Test Method for Abrasion Resistance of Organic Coatings by Air Blast Abrasive

    D660 Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Checking of Exterior Paints

    D661 Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Cracking of Exterior Paints

    D662 Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Erosion of Exterior Paints

    D714 Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Blistering of Paints

    D772 Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Flaking (Scaling) of Exterior Paints

    D822 Practice for Filtered Open-Flame Carbon-Arc Exposures of Paint and Related Coatings

    D870 Practice for Testing Water Resistance of Coatings Using Water Immersion

    D968 Test Methods for Abrasion Resistance of Organic Coatings by Falling Abrasive

    D1005 Test Method for Measurement of Dry-Film Thickness of Organic Coatings Using Micrometers

    D1014 Practice for Conducting Exterior Exposure Tests of Paints and Coatings on Metal Substrates

    D1308 Test Method for Effect of Household Chemicals on Clear and Pigmented Organic Finishes

    D1474 Test Methods for Indentation Hardness of Organic Coatings

    D1535 Practice for Specifying Color by the Munsell System

    D1654 Test Method for Evaluation of Painted or Coated Specimens Subjected to Corrosive Environments

    D1729 Practice for Visual Appraisal of Colors and Color Differences of Diffusely-Illuminated Opaque Materials

    D1730 Practices for Preparation of Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Surfaces for Painting

    D1731 Practices for Preparation of Hot-Dip Aluminum Surfaces for Painting

    D1732 Practices for Preparation of Magnesium Alloy Surfaces for Painting

    D1735 Practice for Testing Water Resistance of Coatings Using Water Fog Apparatus

    D1895 Test Methods for Apparent Density, Bulk Factor, and Pourability of Plastic Materials

    D1898 Practice for Sampling of Plastics

    D1921 Test Methods for Particle Size (Sieve Analysis) of Plastic Materials

    D2091 Test Method for Print Resistance of Lacquers

    D2092 Guide for Preparation of Zinc-Coated (Galvanized) Steel Surfaces for Painting

    D2201 Practice for Preparation of Zinc-Coated and Zinc-Alloy-Coated Steel Panels for Testing Paint and Related Coating Products

    D2244 Practice for Calculation of Color Tolerances and Color Differences from Instrumentally Measured Color Coordinates

    D2247 Practice for Testing Water Resistance of Coatings in 100 % Relative Humidity

    D2248 Practice for Detergent Resistance of Organic Finishes

    D2369 Test Method for Volatile Content of Coatings

    D2454 Practice for Determining the Effect of Overbaking on Organic Coatings

    D2616 Test Method for Evaluation of Visual Color Difference With a Gray Scale

    D2793 Test Method for Block Resistance of Organic Coatings on Wood Panel Substrates

    D2794 Test Method for Resistance of Organic Coatings to the Effects of Rapid Deformation (Impact)

    D2803 Guide for Testing Filiform Corrosion Resistance of Organic Coatings on Metal

    D2967 Test Method for Corner Coverage of Powder Coatings

    D3003 Test Method for Pressure Mottling and Blocking Resistance of Organic Coatings on Metal Substrates

    D3023 Practice for Determination of Resistance of Factory-Applied Coatings on Wood Products to Stains and Reagents

    D3134 Practice for Establishing Color and Gloss Tolerances

    D3170 Test Method for Chipping Resistance of Coatings

    D3260 Test Method for Acid and Mortar Resistance of Factory-Applied Clear Coatings on Extruded Aluminum Products

    D3359 Test Methods for Measuring Adhesion by Tape Test

    D3363 Test Method for Film Hardness by Pencil Test

    D3960 Practice for Determining Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Content of Paints and Related Coatings

    D4017 Test Method for Water in Paints and Paint Materials by Karl Fischer Method

    D4060 Test Method for Abrasion Resistance of Organic Coatings by the Taber Abraser

    D4086 Practice for Visual Evaluation of Metamerism

    D4141 Practice for Conducting Black Box and Solar Concentrating Exposures of Coatings

    D4145 Test Method for Coating Flexibility of Prepainted Sheet

    D4214 Test Methods for Evaluating the Degree of Chalking of Exterior Paint Films

    D4217 Test Method for Gel Time of Thermosetting Coating Powder

    D4242 Test Method for Inclined Plate Flow for Thermosetting Coating Powders

    D4585 Practice for Testing Water Resistance of Coatings Using Controlled Condensation

    D4587 Practice for Fluorescent UV-Condensation Exposures of Paint and Related Coatings

    D5031 Practice for Enclosed Carbon-Arc Exposure Tests of Paint and Related Coatings

    D5382 Guide to Evaluation of Optical Properties of Powder Coatings

    D5531 Guide for Preparation, Maintenance, and Distribution of Physical Product Standards for Color and Geometric Appearance of Coatings

    D5767 Test Methods for Instrumental Measurement of Distinctness-of-Image Gloss of Coating Surfaces

    D5861 Guide for Significance of Particle Size Measurements of Coating Powders

    D5965 Test Methods for Specific Gravity of Coating Powders

    D6132 Test Method for Nondestructive Measurement of Dry Film Thickness of Applied Organic Coatings Using an Ultrasonic Gage

    D6441 Test Methods for Measuring the Hiding Power of Powder Coatings

    D6695 Practice for Xenon-Arc Exposures of Paint and Related Coatings

    D7091 Practice for Nondestructive Measurement of Dry Film Thickness of Nonmagnetic Coatings Applied to Ferrous Metals and Nonmagnetic, Nonconductive Coatings Applied to Non-Ferrous Metals

    E11 Specification for Woven Wire Test Sieve Cloth and Test Sieves

    E284 Terminology of Appearance

    E308 Practice for Computing the Colors of Objects by Using the CIE System

    E430 Test Methods for Measurement of Gloss of High-Gloss Surfaces by Abridged Goniophotometry

    E1164 Practice for Obtaining Spectrometric Data for Object-Color Evaluation

    E1331 Test Method for Reflectance Factor and Color by Spectrophotometry Using Hemispherical Geometry

    E1345 Practice for Reducing the Effect of Variability of Color Measurement by Use of Multiple Measurements

    E1347 Test Method for Color and Color-Difference Measurement by Tristimulus Colorimetry

    E1349 Test Method for Reflectance Factor and Color by Spectrophotometry Using Bidirectional (45:0 or 0:45) Geometry

    G141 Guide for Addressing Variability in Exposure Testing of Nonmetallic Materials

    G147 Practice for Conditioning and Handling of Nonmetallic Materials for Natural and Artificial Weathering Tests

    G151 Practice for Exposing Nonmetallic Materials in Accelerated Test Devices that Use Laboratory Light Sources

    G152 Practice for Operating Open Flame Carbon Arc Light Apparatus for Exposure of Nonmetallic Materials

    G153 Practice for Operating Enclosed Carbon Arc Light Apparatus for Exposure of Nonmetallic Materials

    G154 Practice for Operating Fluorescent Light Apparatus for UV Exposure of Nonmetallic Materials

    G155 Practice for Operating Xenon Arc Light Apparatus for Exposure of Non-Metallic Materials


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 87.040 (Paints and varnishes)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 46181533(Protective coats)


    DOI: 10.1520/D3451-06R12

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