ASTM D3420 - 08a

    Standard Test Method for Pendulum Impact Resistance of Plastic Film

    Active Standard ASTM D3420 | Developed by Subcommittee: D20.19

    Book of Standards Volume: 08.02


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    Significance and Use

    Like other techniques to measure toughness, this test method provides a means to determine parameters of a material at strain rates closer to some end-use applications than provided by low-speed uniaxial tensile tests. Dynamic tensile behavior of a film is important, particularly when the film is used as a packaging material. The same uncertainties about correlations with thickness that apply to other impact tests also apply to this test (see section 3.4 of Test Methods D 1709). Hence, no provision for rationalizing to unit thickness is provided. Also, no provision is made for testing at non-ambient temperatures.

    This test method includes two procedures, similar except with regard to sample size: Procedure A for 60-mm diameter and Procedure B for 89-mm diameter (commonly called the Spencer). The data have not been shown relatable to each other.

    Several impact test methods are used for film. It is sometimes desirable to know the relationships among test results derived by different methods. A study was conducted in which four films made from two resins (polypropylene and linear low-density polyethylene), with two film thicknesses for each resin, were impacted using Test Methods D 1709 (Method A), Test Method D 3420 (Procedures A and B), and Test Method D 4272. The test results are shown in Appendix X2. Differences in results between Test Methods D 1709 and D 4272 are expected since Test Methods D 1709 represents failure initiated energy while Test Method D 4272 is initiation plus completion energy. Some films have shown consistency when the initiation energy was the same as the total energy. This statement and the test data also appear in the significance and appendixes sections of Test Methods of D 1709 and D 4272.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of resistance of film to impact-puncture penetration. Knowledge of how the impact energy is absorbed by the specimen while it is deforming under the impact loading, and the behavior of the specimen after yielding, is not provided by this test. No provision is made for nonambient temperatures in this test method.

    1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard.

    1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific hazards statements are given in Section 7.

    Note 1—There is no known ISO equivalent to this standard.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D618 Practice for Conditioning Plastics for Testing

    D883 Terminology Relating to Plastics

    D1709 Test Methods for Impact Resistance of Plastic Film by the Free-Falling Dart Method

    D1922 Test Method for Propagation Tear Resistance of Plastic Film and Thin Sheeting by Pendulum Method

    D4272 Test Method for Total Energy Impact of Plastic Films By Dart Drop

    D6988 Guide for Determination of Thickness of Plastic Film Test Specimens

    E177 Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods

    E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 83.140.10 (Films and sheets)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 13111200(Films)


    Referencing This Standard

    DOI: 10.1520/D3420-08A

    ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.

    Citation Format

    ASTM D3420-08a, Standard Test Method for Pendulum Impact Resistance of Plastic Film, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2008, www.astm.org

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