Significance and Use
This practice is subject to the definition of injection molding given in 3.1.2 with the further provision that with in-line screw injection the plastic compound, heated in a chamber by conduction and friction, is fluxed by the action of a reciprocating screw and then is forced into a hot mold where it solidifies. Hereafter, in-line screw-injection molding will be referred to simply as injection molding.
The mold referenced in this section (see Fig. 1) is generally useful, and describes what have been the most common specimens required for the testing of thermosets. ISO specimens and testing are gaining favor, however. Practice D3641 and ISO 10724 describe the layout and practice for injection molding the multi-purpose specimens in accordance with ISO 3167.
Typically, injection-molded test specimens are made with shorter cycles than those used for similar moldings made by compression, and the cycle is equal to or faster than that for transfer molding.
Breathing of the mold is not usually required to release trapped volatile material as the gas is free to flow from the vent end of the mold. This is particularly advantageous for heat-resistant compounds and reduces the tendency for molded specimens to blister at high exposure temperatures.
Injection molding is intended for low-viscosity compounds. One set of processing parameters cannot be specified for all types of thermosetting materials, nor for samples of the same material having different plasticities.
Materials containing fibrous fillers such as glass roving, chopped cloth, or cellulosic fibers can be injection molded, but their properties will be affected depending upon how much fiber breakdown occurs as the compound is worked by the screw and as it passes through the system of runners and gates. The orientation of the fibers in the molded specimen will also affect injection-molded properties.
Flow and knit lines in a molded piece are often sites of mechanical or electrical weakness. The fluxed material passing through the gate wrinkles and folds as it proceeds into the mold cavity. Knit lines are found to some degree throughout the molded piece; and can affect test results. Fibers and other reinforcements in the molding compound align with the flow pattern and, generally, are perpendicular to the axis of the bar at its center and parallel at its surface.
Placement and size of gates and vents can be used to minimize flow and knit lines, for example, side gating of bars will minimize the tendency of the material to fold onto itself as the material front proceeds through the length of the mold.
The Izod impact strength of injection-molded specimens containing short fibers will generally be lower than the values obtained using compression molding methods. The impact strength can also vary along the axis of the bar due to molding parameters, flow patterns, and fiber orientation.
The flexural and tensile strength of injection-molded specimens of molding compounds containing short fibers will generally be higher than the values obtained using compression-molding methods. Flexural tests are particularly sensitive to injection molding due to the thin resin skin formed at the surface of the bar during final filling of the cavity and pressure buildup.
At constant mold temperature the following parameters are known to cause an underfilled condition at the vented end of the cavity: incorrect plasticity, too low an injection pressure, insufficient material, too long an injection time, blocked vents, high stock temperature, or incorrect die temperature.
Note—Thermometer wells shall be 8 mm (5/16 in.) in diameter to permit use of a readily available thermometer. FIG. 1 Five-Cavity Transfer Mold for Thermosetting Plastic Test Specimens (Steam Cores Not Shown)
1.1 This practice covers the general principles to be followed when injection molding test specimens of thermosetting materials. It is to be used to obtain uniformity in methods of describing the various steps of the injection molding process and in the reporting of those conditions. The exact molding conditions will vary from material to material, and if not incorporated in the material specification, shall be agreed upon between the purchaser and the supplier or determined by previous experience with the particular type of material being used and its plasticity.
Note 1—The utility of this practice has been demonstrated for the molding of thermosetting molding compounds exhibiting lower-viscosity non-Newtonian flow.
1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.4 This practice assumes the use of reciprocating screw injection molding machines.
Note 2—This standard and ISO 10724 address the same subject matter, but differ in technical content.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D883 Terminology Relating to Plastics
D3641 Practice for Injection Molding Test Specimens of Thermoplastic Molding and Extrusion Materials
ISO3167 :1993, Plastics--Multipurpose Test Specimens
in-line screw-injection-molding; injection molding; test specimens; thermosetting compounds; Charpy impact test; Compression testing--plastics; Impact testing--Charpy; Impact testing--plastics; Izod impact testing; Molding/extrusion compounds/materials; Thermosetting plastics; Water analysis--plastics processing
ICS Number Code 83.140.99 (Other rubber and plastic products)
ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.
Citing ASTM Standards
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