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Significance and Use
The goal of sampling is to obtain for analysis a portion of the main body of water that is representative. The most critical factors necessary to achieve this are points of sampling, and materials selection, system design, time of sampling, frequency of sampling, and proper procedures to maintain the integrity of the sample prior to analysis.
Homogeneity of the process to be sampled is frequently lacking, necessitating multiple-point sampling. If it is impractical to utilize a most-representative sampling point, it may be practical to determine and understand interrelationships so that results obtained at a minimum number of points may be used to characterize the system.
Samples collected from a single point in a system are always recognized as being non-representative to some degree. For this reason, total representativeness of samples cannot be a prerequisite to the selection of a sampling point. The degree of representativeness of the sample shall be assessed and the assessment made a part of the permanent record. This will prevent an artificial degree of accuracy from being assigned to the data derived from tests on the sample.
The samples shall be of sufficient volume and shall be taken frequently enough to permit reproducibility of testing requisite for the desired objective, as required by the method of analysis to be used.
Laboratories or facilities conducting water sampling should be in compliance with Guide D3856.
1.1 These practices cover the equipment and methods for sampling water from closed conduits such as process streams at power stations for chemical, physical, microbiological, and radiological analyses. It does not cover specialized equipment required for and unique to a specific test or method of analysis. The following are included:
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
A106/A106M Specification for Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Service
A179/A179M Specification for Seamless Cold-Drawn Low-Carbon Steel Heat-Exchanger and Condenser Tubes
A269 Specification for Seamless and Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Tubing for General Service
A335/A335M Specification for Seamless Ferritic Alloy-Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Service
D1066 Practice for Sampling Steam
D1129 Terminology Relating to Water
D1193 Specification for Reagent Water
D3648 Practices for the Measurement of Radioactivity
D3694 Practices for Preparation of Sample Containers and for Preservation of Organic Constituents
D3856 Guide for Management Systems in Laboratories Engaged in Analysis of Water
D4453 Practice for Handling of High Purity Water Samples
D4840 Guide for Sample Chain-of-Custody Procedures
D4841 Practice for Estimation of Holding Time for Water Samples Containing Organic and Inorganic Constituents
D5540 Practice for Flow Control and Temperature Control for On-Line Water Sampling and Analysis
ICS Number Code 13.060.30 (Sewage water)