Significance and Use
This test method is useful for quality-control tests on PVC compounds having a wide range of melt viscosities. Measurements are made at shear rates close to 1 s−1.
In addition to the properties mentioned in Test Method D1238, this technique is sensitive to plasticizer content, polymer molecular weight, polymer stability (both thermally and rheologically), shear instability, and general composition. The sensitivity of the material to temperature necessitates slightly tighter controls than those stated in Test Method D1238.
The sensitivity of this test method makes it useful for correlating with processing conditions and as an aid in predicting changes in processing. However, as a one-point measure of flow relative to shear rate, its one drawback is that the same PVC melt flow values can be obtained for materials having different processibility; the chance of this happening is minimized, however, if the compounds are similar in composition.
Correlations with a wide range of processing conditions have supported the conclusions that little or no change in composition occurs during the test. Thus, this test is able to detect and follow profound changes which occur during extrusion, injection molding, milling, or mixing. These changes are due to three types of measured instability in polymers:
Thermal instability due to temperature effect.
Shear instability due to breaking of polymer bonds.
Rheological instability due to nonuniform distributions of widely different viscosity or molecular weight elements.
Thus, implications with respect to PVC molecular structural changes can be detected and predicted.
1.1 This test method is an extension of Test Method D1238 specific to the measurement of flow rates of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) compounds while detecting and controlling various polymer instabilities associated with the flow rate.
1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to inch-pound units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
Note 1—There is no known ISO equivalent to this standard.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D883 Terminology Relating to Plastics
D1238 Test Method for Melt Flow Rates of Thermoplastics by Extrusion Plastometer
D3835 Test Method for Determination of Properties of Polymeric Materials by Means of a Capillary Rheometer
E177 Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
chain shearing; crosslinking; degradation; fragmentation; melt flow rate; poly(vinyl chloride); rheology; shear instability: Crosslinking; Degradation--plastics; Flow and flow rate--thermoplastics; Melt flow rate (of thermoplastics); Poly(vinyl chloride)(PVC); Shear instability;
ICS Number Code 83.080.20 (Thermoplastic materials)
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Citing ASTM Standards
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