ASTM D3361 / D3361M - 13

    Standard Practice for Unfiltered Open-Flame Carbon-Arc Exposures of Paint and Related Coatings

    Active Standard ASTM D3361 / D3361M | Developed by Subcommittee: D01.27

    Book of Standards Volume: 06.01


      Format Pages Price  
    PDF 5 $43.00   ADD TO CART
    Hardcopy (shipping and handling) 5 $43.00   ADD TO CART
    Standard + Redline PDF Bundle 10 $51.60   ADD TO CART


    Significance and Use

    4.1 The ability of a paint or coating to resist deterioration of its physical and optical properties caused by exposure to light, heat, and water can be very significant for many applications. This practice is intended to induce property changes associated with end-use conditions, including the effects of sunlight, moisture, and heat. The exposure used in this practice is not intended to simulate the deterioration caused by localized weather phenomena such as atmospheric pollution, biological attack, and saltwater exposure.

    4.2 Cautions—Variation in results may be expected when different operating conditions are used. Therefore, no reference to the use of this practice shall be made unless accompanied by a report prepared according to Section 10 that describes the specific operating conditions used. Refer to Practice G151 for detailed information on the caveats applicable to use of results obtained according to this practice.

    Note 1Additional information on sources of variability and on strategies for addressing variability in the design, execution, and data analysis of laboratory accelerated exposure tests is found in Guide G141.

    4.2.1 The spectral power distribution of light from an unfiltered open-flame carbon arc is significantly different from that produced in light and water exposure devices using other carbon-arc configurations or other light sources. The type and rate of degradation and the performance rankings produced by exposures to unfiltered open-flame carbon-arcs can be much different from that produced by exposures to other types of laboratory light sources. Typically, exposures conducted according to this practice will produce degradation faster than similar exposures conducted in accordance with Practice D822/D822M or D5031/D5031M and may cause different types of degradation.

    4.2.2 Interlaboratory comparisons are valid only when all laboratories use the same type of carbon-arc and exposure conditions.

    4.3 Reproducibility of test results between laboratories has been shown to be good when the stability of materials is evaluated in terms of performance ranking compared to other materials or to a control.4,5 Therefore, exposure of a similar material of known performance (a control) at the same time as the test materials is strongly recommended. It is recommended that at least three replicates of each material be exposed to allow for statistical evaluation of results.

    4.4 Test results will depend upon the care that is taken to operate the equipment in accordance with Practice G152. Significant factors include regulation of line voltage, freedom from salt or other deposits from water, temperature and humidity control, and conditions of the electrodes.

    4.5 All references to exposures in accordance with this practice must include a complete description of the test cycle used.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This practice covers the selection of test conditions for accelerated exposure testing of coatings and related products in unfiltered open-flame carbon-arc devices conducted according to Practice G151 and G152. This practice also covers the preparation of test specimens, the test conditions suited for coatings, and the evaluation of test results.

    1.2 This practice covers unfiltered open-flame carbon-arc exposures of paints and related coatings, and covers the exposure cycle that has been commonly referred to as the “dew cycle.” Practice D822/D822M describes filtered open-flame carbon-arc devices, and Practice D5031/D5031M describes enclosed carbon-arc exposures. The radiation from an unfiltered open-flame carbon arc produces shorter wavelengths and higher levels of short wavelength radiation than either filtered open-flame or enclosed carbon arcs.

    1.3 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.

    1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D358 Specification for Wood to Be Used as Panels in Weathering Tests of Coatings

    D523 Test Method for Specular Gloss

    D609 Practice for Preparation of Cold-Rolled Steel Panels for Testing Paint, Varnish, Conversion Coatings, and Related Coating Products

    D610 Practice for Evaluating Degree of Rusting on Painted Steel Surfaces

    D659 Method for Evaluating Degree of Chalking of Exterior Paints

    D660 Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Checking of Exterior Paints

    D662 Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Erosion of Exterior Paints

    D714 Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Blistering of Paints

    D772 Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Flaking (Scaling) of Exterior Paints

    D822/D822M Practice for Filtered Open-Flame Carbon-Arc Exposures of Paint and Related Coatings

    D823 Practices for Producing Films of Uniform Thickness of Paint, Varnish, and Related Products on Test Panels

    D1005 Test Method for Measurement of Dry-Film Thickness of Organic Coatings Using Micrometers

    D1186 Test Methods for Nondestructive Measurement of Dry Film Thickness of Nonmagnetic Coatings Applied to a Ferrous Base

    D1400 Test Method for Nondestructive Measurement of Dry Film Thickness of Nonconductive Coatings Applied to a Nonferrous Metal Base

    D1729 Practice for Visual Appraisal of Colors and Color Differences of Diffusely-Illuminated Opaque Materials

    D1730 Practices for Preparation of Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Surfaces for Painting

    D2244 Practice for Calculation of Color Tolerances and Color Differences from Instrumentally Measured Color Coordinates

    D2616 Test Method for Evaluation of Visual Color Difference With a Gray Scale

    D3980 Practice for Interlaboratory Testing of Paint and Related Materials

    D4214 Test Methods for Evaluating the Degree of Chalking of Exterior Paint Films

    D5031/D5031M Practice for Enclosed Carbon-Arc Exposure Tests of Paint and Related Coatings

    D5870 Practice for Calculating Property Retention Index of Plastics

    E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method

    E1347 Test Method for Color and Color-Difference Measurement by Tristimulus Colorimetry

    G113 Terminology Relating to Natural and Artificial Weathering Tests of Nonmetallic Materials

    G141 Guide for Addressing Variability in Exposure Testing of Nonmetallic Materials

    G147 Practice for Conditioning and Handling of Nonmetallic Materials for Natural and Artificial Weathering Tests

    G151 Practice for Exposing Nonmetallic Materials in Accelerated Test Devices that Use Laboratory Light Sources

    G152 Practice for Operating Open Flame Carbon Arc Light Apparatus for Exposure of Nonmetallic Materials

    G169 Guide for Application of Basic Statistical Methods to Weathering Tests


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 87.040 (Paints and varnishes)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 31211504(Coating paints)


    Referencing This Standard

    DOI: 10.1520/D3361_D3361M

    ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.

    Citation Format

    ASTM D3361 / D3361M-13, Standard Practice for Unfiltered Open-Flame Carbon-Arc Exposures of Paint and Related Coatings, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2013, www.astm.org

    Back to Top