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Significance and Use
This test method is most commonly performed using a negative polarity point opposing a grounded sphere (NPS). The NPS breakdown voltage of fresh unused oils measured in the highly divergent field in this configuration depends on oil composition, decreasing with increasing concentration of aromatic, particularly polyaromatic, hydrocarbon molecules.
This test method may be used to evaluate the continuity of composition of an oil from shipment to shipment. The NPS impulse breakdown voltage of an oil can also be substantially lowered by contact with materials of construction, by service aging, and by other impurities. Test results lower than those expected for a given fresh oil may also indicate use or contamination of that oil.
Although polarity of the voltage wave has little or no effect on the breakdown strength of an oil in uniform fields, polarity does have a marked effect on the breakdown voltage of an oil in nonuniform electric fields.
Transient voltages may also vary over a wide range in both the time to reach crest value and the time to decay to half crest or to zero magnitude. The IEEE standard lightning impulse test (see 2.2) specifies a 1.2 by 50-μs negative polarity wave.
1.1 This test method covers the determination of the dielectric breakdown voltage of insulating oils in a highly divergent field under impulse conditions.
1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D923 Practices for Sampling Electrical Insulating Liquids
D2864 Terminology Relating to Electrical Insulating Liquids and Gases
IEEE DocumentsIEEEStandard4-1995 Techniques for High-Voltage Testing Available from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 445 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, NJ 08855-1331.
ICS Number Code 29.040.10 (Insulating oils)
UNSPSC Code 15121505(Transformer oil or insulating oil)