Significance and Use
New and used petroleum products can contain basic constituents that are present as additives. The relative amounts of these materials can be determined by titration with acids. The base number is a measure of the amount of basic substance in the oil, always under the conditions of the test. It is sometimes used as a measure of lubricant degradation in service; however, any condemning limits must be empirically established.
1.1 This test method covers the determination of basic constituents in petroleum products by titration with perchloric acid in glacial acetic acid.
1.2 Procedures A and B use different titration solvent volumes and sample weights.
Note 1—A round robin on a series of new and used oils and additive concentrates has shown that the two procedures give statistically equivalent results.
1.3 Appendix X2 provides the use of an alternative solvent system which eliminates the use of chlorobenzene in this test method. The use of the alternative solvent gives statistically equivalent results; however, the precision is worse. Paragraph X2.5.5 provides guidance when comparing results using the two different solvents.
1.4 The constituents that may be considered to have basic characteristics include organic and inorganic bases, amino compounds, salts of weak acids (soaps), basic salts of polyacidic bases, and salts of heavy metals.
Note 2—This test method is applicable to both fresh oils and used oils as described in Sections 17, 18, and 20 and Appendix X1.
1.5 This test method can be used to determine base number >300 mg KOH/g. However, the precision statement in Section 20 has been obtained only on base number ≤300 mg KOH/g.
1.6 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific warning statements, see Section 7, Section 10, and X2.2.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D1193 Specification for Reagent Water
base number; perchloric acid; petroleum products; potentiometric titration: Acidity, alkalinity, pH--petroleum products
ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.
Citing ASTM Standards
[Back to Top]