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Significance and Use
5.1 This test method is one of a number of tests conducted on a crude oil to determine its value. It provides an estimate of the yields of fractions of various boiling ranges and is therefore valuable in technical discussions of a commercial nature.
5.2 This test method corresponds to the standard laboratory distillation efficiency referred to as 15/5. The fractions produced can be analyzed as produced or combined to produce samples for analytical studies, engineering, and product quality evaluations. The preparation and evaluation of such blends is not part of this test method.
5.3 This test method can be used as an analytical tool for examination of other petroleum mixtures with the exception of LPG, very light naphthas, and mixtures with initial boiling points above 400°C.
1.1 This test method covers the procedure for the distillation of stabilized crude petroleum (see Note 1) to a final cut temperature of 400°C Atmospheric Equivalent Temperature (AET). This test method employs a fractionating column having an efficiency of 14 to 18 theoretical plates operated at a reflux ratio of 5:1. Performance criteria for the necessary equipment is specified. Some typical examples of acceptable apparatus are presented in schematic form. This test method offers a compromise between efficiency and time in order to facilitate the comparison of distillation data between laboratories.
1.2 This test method details procedures for the production of a liquefied gas, distillate fractions, and residuum of standardized quality on which analytical data can be obtained, and the determination of yields of the above fractions by both mass and volume. From the preceding information, a graph of temperature versus mass % distilled can be produced. This distillation curve corresponds to a laboratory technique, which is defined at 15/5 (15 theoretical plate column, 5:1 reflux ratio) or TBP (true boiling point).
1.4.1 Annex A1—Test Method for the Determination of the Efficiency of a Distillation Column,
1.4.2 Annex A2—Test Method for the Determination of the Dynamic Holdup of a Distillation Column,
1.4.3 Annex A3—Test Method for the Determination of the Heat Loss in a Distillation Column (Static Conditions),
1.4.4 Annex A4—Test Method for the Verification of Temperature Sensor Location,
1.4.5 Annex A5—Test Method for Determination of the Temperature Response Time,
1.4.6 Annex A6—Practice for the Calibration of Sensors,
1.4.7 Annex A7—Test Method for the Verification of Reflux Dividing Valves,
1.4.8 Annex A8—Practice for Conversion of Observed Vapor Temperature to Atmospheric Equivalent Temperature (AET),
1.4.9 Appendix X1—Test Method for Dehydration of a Sample of Wet Crude Oil, and
1.4.10 Appendix X2—Practice for Performance Check.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific warning statements, see Section 10.
1.7 WARNING—Mercury has been designated by many regulatory agencies as a hazardous material that can cause central nervous system, kidney and liver damage. Mercury, or its vapor, may be hazardous to health and corrosive to materials. Caution should be taken when handling mercury and mercury containing products. See the applicable product Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for details and EPA’s website—http://www.epa.gov/mercury/faq.htm—for additional information. Users should be aware that selling mercury and/or mercury containing products into your state or country may be prohibited by law.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D941 Test Method for Density and Relative Density (Specific Gravity) of Liquids by Lipkin Bicapillary Pycnometer Withdrawn. The last approved version of this historical standard is referenced on www.astm.org.
D1217 Test Method for Density and Relative Density (Specific Gravity) of Liquids by Bingham Pycnometer
D1298 Test Method for Density, Relative Density, or API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Liquid Petroleum Products by Hydrometer Method
D2887 Test Method for Boiling Range Distribution of Petroleum Fractions by Gas Chromatography
D3710 Test Method for Boiling Range Distribution of Gasoline and Gasoline Fractions by Gas Chromatography
D4006 Test Method for Water in Crude Oil by Distillation
D4052 Test Method for Density, Relative Density, and API Gravity of Liquids by Digital Density Meter
D4057 Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D4177 Practice for Automatic Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D5134 Test Method for Detailed Analysis of Petroleum Naphthas through n-Nonane by Capillary Gas Chromatography
D6300 Practice for Determination of Precision and Bias Data for Use in Test Methods for Petroleum Products and Lubricants
D6729 Test Method for Determination of Individual Components in Spark Ignition Engine Fuels by 100 Metre Capillary High Resolution Gas Chromatography
D6730 Test Method for Determination of Individual Components in Spark Ignition Engine Fuels by 100-Metre Capillary (with Precolumn) High-Resolution Gas Chromatography
D6733 Test Method for Determination of Individual Components in Spark Ignition Engine Fuels by 50-Metre Capillary High Resolution Gas Chromatography
ICS Number Code 75.040 (Crude petroleum)
UNSPSC Code 15101508(Crude oil)