Active Standard ASTM D2878 | Developed by Subcommittee: D02.L0.07
Book of Standards Volume: 05.01
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Significance and Use
The vapor pressure of a substance as determined by measurement of evaporation reflects a property of the bulk sample. Little weight is given by the procedure to the presence of low concentrations of volatile impurities.
Vapor pressure, per se, is a thermodynamic property that is dependent only upon composition and temperature for stable systems. In the present method, composition changes occur during the course of the test so that the contribution of minor amounts of volatile impurities is minimized.
1.1 This test method covers a calculation procedure for converting data obtained by Test Method D972 to apparent vapor pressures and molecular weights. It has been demonstrated to be applicable to petroleum-based and synthetic ester lubricating oils, at temperatures of 395 to 535K (250 to 500°F). However, its applicability to lubricating greases has not been established.
Note 1—Most lubricants boil over a fairly wide temperature range, a fact recognized in discussion of their vapor pressures. For example, the apparent vapor pressure over the range 0 to 0.1 % evaporated may be as much as 100 times that over the range 4.9 to 5.0 % evaporated.
1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. In cases in which materials, products, or equipment are available in inch-pound units only, SI units are omitted.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability or regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific warning statements, see 6.2, 7.1, 8.2, and Annex A2.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
A240/A240M Specification for Chromium and Chromium-Nickel Stainless Steel Plate, Sheet, and Strip for Pressure Vessels and for General Applications
D92 Test Method for Flash and Fire Points by Cleveland Open Cup Tester
D972 Test Method for Evaporation Loss of Lubricating Greases and Oils
D2503 Test Method for Relative Molecular Mass (Molecular Weight) of Hydrocarbons by Thermoelectric Measurement of Vapor Pressure
D2595 Test Method for Evaporation Loss of Lubricating Greases Over Wide-Temperature Range
D2883 Test Method for Reaction Threshold Temperature of Liquid and Solid Materials
E659 Test Method for Autoignition Temperature of Liquid Chemicals
ICS Number Code 75.100 (Lubricants, industrial oils and related products)