ASTM D2878 - 10

    Standard Test Method for Estimating Apparent Vapor Pressures and Molecular Weights of Lubricating Oils

    Active Standard ASTM D2878 | Developed by Subcommittee: D02.L0.07

    Book of Standards Volume: 05.01


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    Significance and Use

    The vapor pressure of a substance as determined by measurement of evaporation reflects a property of the bulk sample. Little weight is given by the procedure to the presence of low concentrations of volatile impurities.

    Vapor pressure, per se, is a thermodynamic property that is dependent only upon composition and temperature for stable systems. In the present method, composition changes occur during the course of the test so that the contribution of minor amounts of volatile impurities is minimized.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method covers a calculation procedure for converting data obtained by Test Method D972 to apparent vapor pressures and molecular weights. It has been demonstrated to be applicable to petroleum-based and synthetic ester lubricating oils, at temperatures of 395 to 535K (250 to 500°F). However, its applicability to lubricating greases has not been established.

    Note 1—Most lubricants boil over a fairly wide temperature range, a fact recognized in discussion of their vapor pressures. For example, the apparent vapor pressure over the range 0 to 0.1 % evaporated may be as much as 100 times that over the range 4.9 to 5.0 % evaporated.

    1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. In cases in which materials, products, or equipment are available in inch-pound units only, SI units are omitted.

    1.3 WARNINGMercury has been designated by many regulatory agencies as a hazardous material that can cause central nervous system, kidney and liver damage. Mercury, or its vapor, may be hazardous to health and corrosive to materials. Caution should be taken when handling mercury and mercury containing products. See the applicable product Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for details and EPAs websitehttp://www.epa.gov/mercury/faq.htmfor additional information. Users should be aware that selling mercury or mercury containing products into your state or country may be prohibited by law.

    1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability or regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific warning statements, see 6.2, 7.1, 8.2, and Annex A2.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    A240/A240M Specification for Chromium and Chromium-Nickel Stainless Steel Plate, Sheet, and Strip for Pressure Vessels and for General Applications

    D92 Test Method for Flash and Fire Points by Cleveland Open Cup Tester

    D972 Test Method for Evaporation Loss of Lubricating Greases and Oils

    D2503 Test Method for Relative Molecular Mass (Molecular Weight) of Hydrocarbons by Thermoelectric Measurement of Vapor Pressure

    D2595 Test Method for Evaporation Loss of Lubricating Greases Over Wide-Temperature Range

    D2883 Test Method for Reaction Threshold Temperature of Liquid and Solid Materials

    E659 Test Method for Autoignition Temperature of Liquid Chemicals


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 75.100 (Lubricants, industrial oils and related products)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 15120000(Lubricants and oils and greases and anti)


    DOI: 10.1520/D2878-10

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