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Significance and Use
5.1 Many important properties of crosslinked ethylene plastics vary with the gel content. Hence, determination of the gel content provides a means of both controlling the process and rating the quality of finished products.
5.2 Extraction tests permit verification of the proper gel content of any given crosslinked ethylene plastic and they also permit comparison between different crosslinked ethylene plastics, including those containing fillers, provided that, for the latter, the following conditions are met:
5.2.1 The filler is not soluble in either decahydronaphthalene or xylenes at the extraction temperature.
5.2.2 The amount of filler present in the compound either is known or will be determined by other means.
5.2.3 Sufficient crosslinking has been achieved to prevent migration of filler during the extraction. Usually it has been found that, at extraction levels up to 50 %, the extractant remains clear and free of filler.
5.3 A suitable antioxidant is added to the extractant to inhibit possible oxidative degradation at the extraction temperatures.
5.4 Before proceeding with this test method, reference shall be made to the specification of the material being tested. Any test specimen preparation, conditioning, dimensions, or testing parameters, or a combination thereof, covered in the materials specification shall take precedence over those mentioned in this test method. If there are no material specifications, then the default conditions apply.
1.1 The gel content (insoluble fraction) produced in ethylene plastics by crosslinking is determined by extracting with solvents such as decahydronaphthalene or xylenes. The methods described herein are applicable to crosslinked ethylene plastics of all densities, including those containing fillers, and all provide corrections for the inert fillers present in some of those compounds.
1.2 Test Method A, which permits most complete extraction in least time, is to be used for referee tests, but two alternative nonreferee Test Methods B and C are also described. Test Method B differs from the referee test method only in sample preparation; that is, it requires use of shavings taken at selected points in cable insulation, for example, rather than the ground sample required by the referee test method. Because the shaved particles are larger, less total surface per sample is exposed to the extractant, so this test method ordinarily yields extraction values about 1 to 2 % lower than the referee method. Test Method C requires that a specimen in one piece be extracted in xylenes at a constant temperature of 110°C. At this temperature and with a one-piece specimen, even less extraction occurs (from 3 to 9 % less than the referee test method), this method permits swell ratio (a measure of the degree of crosslinking in the gel phase) be determined.
1.3 Extraction tests are made on articles of any shape. They have been particularly useful for electrical insulations since specimens can be selected from those portions of the insulation most susceptible to insufficient crosslinking.
1.4 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.
Note 1: This test method is equivalent to ISO 10147, Method B. It is not equivalent to ISO 10147 in any other measurement or section.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific precautionary statements are given in Sections , , and .
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D297 Test Methods for Rubber Products--Chemical Analysis
D618 Practice for Conditioning Plastics for Testing
D883 Terminology Relating to Plastics
D1603 Test Method for Carbon Black Content in Olefin Plastics
D1998 Specification for Polyethylene Upright Storage Tanks
D3351 Test Method for Gel Count of Plastic Film
E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
ISO StandardISO 10147 Pipes and Fittings Made of Crosslinked Polyethylene (Pe-X)--Estimation of the Degree of Crosslinking by Determination of the Gel Content
ICS Number Code 83.080.20 (Thermoplastic materials)
UNSPSC Code 13111016(Polyethylene); 30265802(Plastic sheet)
|Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)|
ASTM D2765-16, Standard Test Methods for Determination of Gel Content and Swell Ratio of Crosslinked Ethylene Plastics, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2016, www.astm.orgBack to Top