Active Standard ASTM D2697 | Developed by Subcommittee: D01.21
Book of Standards Volume: 06.01
Historical (view previous versions of standard)
Significance and Use
This test method is intended to provide a measure of the volume of dry coating obtainable from a given volume of liquid coating. This value is useful for comparing the coverage (square feet of surface covered at a specified dry film thickness per unit volume) obtainable with different coating products.
For various reasons the value obtained may not be equal to that predicted from simple additivity of the weights and volumes of the raw materials in a formulation. One reason is that the volume occupied by a solution of resin in solvent may be the same, greater, or less than the total volume of the separate ingredients: such contraction or expansion in resin solutions is governed by a number of factors, one of which is the extent and direction of spread between solubility parameters of the resin and solvent.
The spatial configuration of the pigment particles and the degree to which the spaces between the pigment particles are filled with the binder also affect the volume of a dry coating formulation. Above the critical pigment volume concentration, the apparent volume of the dry film is significantly greater than theoretical due to the increase in unfilled voids between pigment particles. The use of volume nonvolatile matter values in such instances should be carefully considered as the increased volume is largely due to air trapped in these voids.
1.1 This test method is believed to be applicable to the determination of the volume of nonvolatile matter of a variety of coatings. An interlaboratory study to establish the precision of this test method included a water-reducible exterior latex paint and three automotive coatings that included a solvent-reducible primer surfacer, water reducible primer surfacer, water reducible enamel topcoat, and acrylic dispersion lacquer topcoat. Earlier collaborative studies included a gloss enamel, a flat wall paint, a gloss house enamel, an industrial baking enamel, an interior latex paint, and an exterior latex paint.
1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D1475 Test Method For Density of Liquid Coatings, Inks, and Related Products
D2369 Test Method for Volatile Content of Coatings
D3925 Practice for Sampling Liquid Paints and Related Pigmented Coatings
D3980 Practice for Interlaboratory Testing of Paint and Related Materials
ICS Number Code 87.040 (Paints and varnishes)